Showing posts with label Winter. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Winter. Show all posts


Ango retreat for monks


Retreat (ango)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Observance


kigo for all summer

ango 安吾 (あんご) intensive retreat
(for monks , priests and sometimes laymen)

Skt varsha or varshika; Pali vassa;
tranquil dwelling, spiritual retreat

CLICK for original link
source :

natsu ango 夏安吾(げあんご)summer retreat for monks
..... gegomori 夏籠(げごもり), gekomori
..... ge 夏(げ)
gegyoo 夏行(げぎょう)

ame ango 雨安吾(うあんご)retreat in the rain
angodera 安吾寺(あんごでら)temple for retreat
gezutome 夏勤(げづとめ)summer rituals
..... ketsuge 結夏(けつげ)
ge-iri 夏入(げいり)beginning the retreat
ketsusei, kessei 結制(けつせい)
ichige 一夏(いちげ)lit. "one summer retreat"
ge hyakunichi 夏百日(げひゃくにち)100 days retreat
.... hyakunichi no gyoo 百日の行(ひゃくにちのぎょう)

ge no hajime 夏の始め(げのはじめ)beginning of the retreat
ichige kujun 一夏九旬(いちげくじゅん)
zen ango 前安吾(ぜんあんご)beginning of the retreat
chuu ango 中安吾(ちゅうあんご)middle of the retreat
go ango 後安吾(ごあんご)ending of the retreat
ge no owari 夏の終り(げのおわり)end of the retreat

gedachi 夏断 (げだち) "summer abstinence"
not eating red meat, not drinking alcohol, staying home reading the sutras and copying them.

. gekyoo 夏経(げきょう) copying the sutras in summer .
gegaki 夏書 (げがき) "writing in summer"
shakyoo-e 写経会 meeting to copy sutras

gebana 夏花 "summer flowers" as offerings on the altar
..... gebana tsumi 夏花摘み(げばなつみ)picking flowers for offerings
during the ango retreat
Every day new flowers are offered.
This is done at the temples, but can also be done at home for the family altar.
The origin of this custom dates back to the Heian period, where offerings were made at the Western Tower of temple HieiZan, Kyoto.


kigo for early autumn

. gege 解夏 end of the summer ascetics .
..... ge aki 夏明き(げあき), ge no hate 夏の果(げのはて)
..... sooan, soo-an 送行(そうあん)
..... gegaki osame 夏書納(げがきおさめ)
..... butsukangibi, butsu kangi bi 仏歓喜日(ぶつかんぎび)
..... kangibi 歓喜日 "a day to rejoice"


kigo for all winter

. Fuyu Ango 冬安居 Winter Retreat for Monks  
yuki ango 雪安居(ゆきあんご) retreat for monks in snow


An, ango (安居), or kessei (結制),
is a Japanese term for a three-month period of intense training for students of Zen Buddhism, lasting anywhere from 90 to 100 days.The practice during ango consists of meditation (zazen), study, and work (samu).

Ango is typically held twice a year, the first period from spring to summer and the second period from fall to winter. The word ango literally translates as "dwelling in peace"; the summer ango is referred to as ge-ango and the winter period is u-ango.
Additionally, some monasteries and Zen centers hold just one ango per year.

Concerning Zen practice in the United States, author Ellen Birx writes,
"Many centers now allow members to attend retreats on a part-time basis. Many have ango, a three-month long period of intensified practice, that members can participate in while continuing to go off to work during the day."

Taigen Dan Leighton writes a more traditional definition, "These are ninety-day training periods of concentrated practice without leaving the monastic enclosure (except for monks going out for necessary temple business). They date back to the summer rainy season retreats of Shakyamuni's time. In Japan, they have been held twice a year, summer and winter."
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

komorido 籠人 / 籠り人 person retreating in a hall for religious practice

Worldwide use

Things found on the way


shibaraku wa taki ni komoru ya ge no hajime

for a while
I will sit behind the waterfall -
summer retreat begins

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉
On May 20,year 元禄2年4月2日

source : itoyo/basho

Urami no taki 裏見の滝 - 裏見の瀧 "Back- view waterfall"
near Nikko, with a cave behind the waterfall for mountain ascetic practises.

urami 恨み to hate, have a grudge,

hototogisu Urami no Taki no ura omote

hototogisu -
Urami no Taki
with back and front

Written on the second day of the fourth lunar month, Genroku 2
When Basho spent time behind the waterfall, he could not hear the hototogisu any more and felt this as URAMI.

Placenames used by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .
Oku no Hosomichi

. Fudo Myo-O 不動明王 statue at Urami .


source : Yamada Naokimi

haru no yo ya komorido yukashi doo no sumi

this spring night -
a person mysteriously in retreat
in the temple corner

Tr. Gabi Greve

Spring 1688, at Hase 初瀬 (Hatsuse)
The temple in Hase is known from the Tales of Genji (Genji Monogatari), where ladies of the court came to pray to Kannon to find a suitable lover.

. Temple Hasedera 長谷寺 .

Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


gegaki, ge-gaki 夏書き copying the sutras during the retreat

natsukashiki ge-gaki no sumi no nioi kana

I remember so fondly
the smell of his ink
during summer retreat writing

at the 17th death anniversary of priest Watanabe Unriboo
渡辺雲裡坊 Watanabe Unribo Seihan (1692-1761)
from Owari

tamoto shite harau ge-gaki no tsukue kana

with her long kimono sleeve
she cleans the desk
for summer retreat writing . . .

. Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村 in Edo .

Buson also wrote this hokku when he met Seihan in Edo, making fun of their shaven heads:

mizu-oke ni unazuki-au ya uri nasubi

in the water tub
they nodd to each other
a melon and an eggplant

source :



gekomori ya tatami ni kobosu hitorigoto

summer retreat -
my lonely mumblings tumble
on the tatami mats

source :


wazawaza ni choo mo kite mau gebana kana

even the butterflies
come to dance here -
summer flower offerings

Tr. Gabi Greve

- - - - -

setchin no uta mo ge-gaki no hitotsu kana

in the temple privy
this poem, too,
a true summer prayer

Tr. Chris Drake

This summer hokku is from the 4th month (May) in 1822, when the summer retreats (夏 ge, or 夏安居 ge-ango) are getting underway at various Buddhist temples. Following a custom that began in ancient India during the Buddha's lifetime, in Japan, too, monks and laypeople gather at temples and concentrate on prayer, chanting, meditation, and study during the rainy season in early summer. The retreats usually began on 4/8, the birthday of the Buddha, and could go on for as long as 90 or a hundred days. Issa seems to have visited a temple on 4/8 or a little later, and in the privy he sees a poem or poems brushed on the wall. Uta usually refers to a waka or a kyoka, a humorous "crazy waka," and it could be either one here.
Evidently the poem refers to one of the Buddhas or is inspired by Buddhism, since Issa takes it to be legitimate summer retreat writing (ge-gaki 夏書). Summer retreat writing usually referred to calligraphically writing the name of a Buddha, especially Amida, or to copying out sutras, but this humble poem, perhaps humorous, obviously expresses deep spirituality.

Chris Drake

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .

. WKD : Summer Flowers .

. Toilet, Outhouse (benjo, no setchin, toire) .

Related words

Kigo for Summer

BACK : Top of this Saijiki



Kasuga Shrine Festivals


Kasuga Shrine Festivals

***** Location: Kasuga Shrine, Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Observance


CLICK for more photos CLICK for more English Information !

The Kasuga Shrine (春日大社, Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. Established in 768 A.D. and rebuilt several times over the centuries, it is the shrine of the Fujiwara family. The interior is famous for its many bronze lanterns, as well as the many stone lanterns that lead up the shrine.

The architectural style Taisha-zukuri takes its name from the Kasuga Shrine.

Kasuga Shrine, and the Kasugayama Primeval Forest near the shrine, are registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara".

The enchanting path to Kasuga Shrine passes through Deer Park (where tame deer roam free). Over a thousand stone lanterns line the way.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

Kasuga jinja 春日神社 Kasuga Shrine is the shrine name.

taisha-zukuri 大社造
Also called ooyashiro-zukuri. The oldest style of shrine architecture.
Read more here: © JAANUS

Kasuga Taisha Japanese HP

Kasuga Wakamiya Festival. Japanese HP


The five deities of the five important shrines

Takemikazuchi no Mikoto / Fuku Kenjaku Kannon

Futsunushi no Mikoto / Yakushi Nyorai

Ame no Koyane no Mikoto / Jiso Bosatsu

Himegami / 11-Headed Kannon Bosatsu

Wakamiya- / Monju Manjushri Bosatsu


Kasuga Lantern Festival in Spring
setsubun mantooroo 節分万灯籠, 万中元万燈籠
Februar 3
Kasuga no mantoo 春日の万燈(かすがのまんとう)
(The kigo is for the winter festival.)

CLICK for more English information CLICK for more Japanese photos

This festival takes place at the Great Shrine at Kasuga, Kasuga Taisha 春日大社.
More than 3000 lanterns are lit up in the cold winter night. The stone lanterns have been dedicated by some Daimyo of the Edo period and many more by the lay people who come visit this shrine. There are also many bronze lanterns hanging from the eaves.

This ceremony is more than 800 years old.

Reference : Kasuga Lantern Festival

O-Bon Lantern Festival, Obon Mantoro
(Obon Mantooroo) お盆万燈籠 

During the O-Bon festival, the lanterns are lit again.
August 14

O-bon, a kigo for haiku

Kasuga Lantern Festival in Winter, Kasuga Mantooroo
春日万燈籠 (かすがまんとうろう). 春日万灯籠
kigo for mid-winter
..... Kasuga no mantoo 春日の万燈(かすがのまんとう)
Taisha Mandoro (Taisha Mandooroo)


Kasuga Spring Festival, Kasuga Festival
kigo for mid-spring
March 13

Kasuga Matsuri 春日祭 (かすがまつり)
"Kasuga Monkey Festival" saru matsuri 申祭(さるまつり)

The shrine was build in the 2nd year of the Zingo-Keiun era (768) and its festival was held on the first "day of the monkey" (saru no hi) in February and November (old lunar calendar). In the Meiji period, this day has been declared to be on March 13.
An imperial messanger makes offerings to the deity and many Shinto ceremonies are held on this day.

One of the three great festivals by order of the Imperial court (san chokusai 三勅祭) of Japan.


"Throwing deer bisquits"
shika senbei tobashi 鹿せんべい飛ばし
March 21
On the open spaces of Wakakusa Yama 若草山

Usually the deer get small bisquits from the tourists, but on this day large ones with a diameter of 25 cm are made for throwing and fighting about the longest flight of a bisquit. Sometimes they throw it for more than 50 meters. The winner gets a pair of the cut-off horns of a Kasuga deer.

CLICK for more photos


Photo: Mainichi Shinbun October 2010

shika no tsunokiri 鹿の角切 (しかのつのきり)
cutting the horns of deer

deer-horn cutting ceremony

tsunokiri 角伐(つのきり)cutting the horns
shikayose 鹿寄せ(しかよせ)herding the deer together
shikatsuri 鹿釣り(しかつり)"fishing for deer"

kigo for late autumn

In October, the divine deer are all gathered in one place and the horns are cut. This will prevent the animals from hurting each other and hurting the many visitors in Nara. The deer are rounded up and the first cut is made by a shinto priest of the shrine. This ceremony started in the Edo period and is performed to this day by a group of about 25 professionals.


Kasuga Wakamiya Shrine Festival
Kasuga Wakamiya On Matsuri

春日若宮御祭 (かすがわかみやおんまつり)
kigo for mid-winter
..... "THE Festival" on matsuri 御祭(おんまつり)
december 15 - 18

This festival is handed down since the 12th century. It started during an epidemic, when the government had rites performed at the "Young Shrine" Wakamiya, to pray for improvement and also for a good harvest.
The biggest event is now held on December 17, with a long procession of people dressed in period robes of the past, from the 9th to the 19th Century.

Traditional music and dance are also performed during these festival days.

CLICK for more photos
Folding Screen depicting the On Matsuri


Kasuga no o-taue matsuri
春日御田植祭 (かすがのおたうえまつり)
rice planting ritual at Kasuga shrine

kigo for the New Year
sometimes placed in mid-spring

On March 15.
A ritual to pray for a good harvest.
At the three shrines Ringo no niwa 林檎の庭, Enomoto Jinja 榎本神社 and Wakamiya shrine 若宮社 men perform ritual planting dances and women plant pine needles (representing rice plants) as an offering to the deities.

The colorful dances and lively songs are a joy.



Horse-riding and arrow shooting contest
yabusame sadame 流鏑馬定(やぶさめさだめ)
July 1

Sacred Rope Ritual, nawamune sai
October 1

Young Monks getting a rank
Bachoo no chigo no okurai uke
Beginning of December

Japanese: Rituals at Kasuga Wakamiya

Wakamiya, chigo or dooji indicates a divine boy (in case of Kasuga an incarnation of Monju Bosatsu), Bodhisattva of wisdom.

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

Kasuga no no shika mo tachisoo hana midoo

Kasuga Field's deer
also attend, I see...
blossom-filled temple

Tr. David Lanoue
Kasuga Shrine and Hana Mido

Kasuga Shrine Mandala
CLICK for more photos

On this scroll, a sacred tree (sakaki, Cleyera japonica) stands on the back of the white deer, which is the messenger of the Deity of Kasuga.
Kasuga shrine has four main deities and the one of Wakamiya (the New Shrine) is seen as Buddhas standing on the branches. There are also wisteria blossoms (fuji), the symbol of the shrine and the Fujiwara family.
The top part of the mandala shows Mount Mikasa in front of the Kasuga hills.

Three haiku by Kobayashi ISSA about the deer

kasugano no shika ni kagaruru awase kana

Kasuga Field's deer
sniff it...
my summer kimono

kasugano ya dagashi ni majiru shika no kuso

Kasuga Field--
penny candy mingles

with deer poop

kasugano ya kami mo yurushi no shika no koi

Kasuga Field--
with the god's permission
deer make love

Tr. David Lanoue


Kasuga jinja no ema 春日神社の絵馬
votiv tablets

They come in all sizes and with all kinds of paintings.
There is a special hall to exhibit them all.


goshiki jika 五色鹿 deer in five colors

The deer go back to the legend of the deity Takemikazuchi no mikoto 武甕槌神
The "Great God of Kashima" rode on a white deer from Kashima all the way to the Kasuga shrine in Nara as a divine messenger, and the deer became the symbol of Nara.
The Kasuga Deer Mandala tells the story.

These deer are only about 2 cm high, made with bamboo legs. They come in five colors and have white dots on their body.

. Folk Toys from Nara .

. Kashima Shrine 鹿島神宮 Kashima Jingu .

. Goshiki Daruma and Color Symbols .

. hakuroku 白鹿 white deer mikuji .


Saiin Kasuga Jinja 西院春日神社
Sai-In Kasuga Shrine in Kyoto

京都市右京区西院春日町61 - 61 Saiin Kasuga-cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyoto
Founded in 833.
It holds all the deities of the Kasuga Shrine in Nara, just closer to Kyoto.

In the compound is a stone that heals all kind of illness

hoosoo ishi 疱瘡石 "smallpox stone"

In the beginning of the Heian period, the wife of Junna Tenno 淳和天皇 (786 - 840), 崇子内親王 Takako Naishinnoo, suffered from smallpox and made a vow to this stone.
So the stone took on the smallpox and the lady was cured. Now people come to pray for good health.

In October there is also a festival with mikoshi palanquins, praying for good health and a good harvest.

- Homepage of the shrine
- source :

Look at more amulets from the shrine
- source :

. byooma taisan 病魔退散 warding off disease .
. Health Amulets 健康御守 kenkoo omamori .


saru matsuri hito yori ooki shika no mure

Beim Fest des Affen
sind die Herden vom Hirsch
mehr als die vom Menschen.

Kinoshita Seirin 木下星林(1918~)
Tr. Namura Kouta

Kasuga Monkey Festival -
there are more throngs of deer
than throngs of people

Tr. Gabi Greve


Aoni Yoshi 青丹よし Aoniyoshi
"the green and cinnabar is good"

This is an old makurakotoba for the old capital of Nara. The red pillars and green window bars of the shrine are auspicious colors to keep evil out of the city.

Many temples and shrines were built whith these colors, so a walk in Nara was yoshi, was pleasing and this expression became synonymous with NARA (Heijokyo 平城京).

There is also a famous sweet from Manshodo 萬勝堂 of this name.
It is made of wasanbon sugar.

CLICK for original link

Wasanbon sugar 和三盆


In 768, when the shrine Kasuga Taisha was built, the priests of the shrine dress in hunters gear (kariginu 狩衣 ) and pound rice for mochi, which are fried in oil. They are also written 伏兎.

hiuchi yaki 火打焼 a kind of mochi ricecake

Related words

***** Light offerings afloat (tooroo nagashi)

***** Stone Lantern (ishidooroo) Japan

***** . Kinkazan : cutting antlers of deer  


The Dragon God of Kasuga Shrine 春日竜神 Kasuga Ryujin
Tsukioka Kōgyo 岡耕漁 (Sakamaki Kōgyo) (1869-1927)

- quote -
Kasuga Ryūjin (春日龍神), or "The Kasuga Dragon God,"
is a Japanese Noh play often attributed to Komparu Zenchiku, son-in-law of Zeami Motokiyo. The play features the historical figure Myōe Shōnin (1173 – 1232), abbot of the Buddhist temple Kōzan-ji, and famous for his detailed dream diary. Myōe sought for many years to visit China and India, and to witness the places where the historical Buddha preached; in episodes recorded in his dream diary and other sources, Myōe is said to have been visited, both in dreams and via oracles, by the Dragon God of Kasuga Shrine, who persuaded him to remain in Japan. The play is inspired by and based upon these sources, and relates one such meeting of Myōe with the Dragon God.
----- Plot
The play opens with Myōe and his companions traveling to Kasuga Shrine to say formal farewells to the kami of the shrine, before they leave for their journey to China and India. There, they meet a priest, an old man, who welcomes them into the shrine grounds, saying that Myōe is favored by the kami of the shrine like a first-born son, and that of course he should be most welcome. Learning of Myōe's intentions to journey abroad, however, he argues that the kami shouldn't like to see him go, as his presence at the shrine is so treasured.

The priest goes on to explain that, were the Buddha still living, one would do well to hear him preach in person. But, he says, the ages have turned, and the sacred places of India and China are now represented in Japan. He equates important Buddhist sites such as Vulture Peak to sites in Japan, such as Mount Mikasa, and encourages Myōe to visit these sacred sites instead. He offers that if Myōe will desist with his plan, he will reveal to the monk, upon Mount Mikasa, the five regions of India, the Buddha's birth, the Buddha's enlightenment, his preaching, and his passing.

Convinced, Myōe gives up his intentions to travel to the continent, and asks the old man his name. The priest identifies himself as Tokifū Hideyuki, a name drawn from those of the founders of the Kasuga Shrine, Nakatomi no Tokifū and Nakatomi no Hideyuki, at which he vanishes.

Between the two acts of the play, a kyōgen actor portraying a minor kami in the service of the shrine comes forth and retells the story of the first act.

In the second act, the Dragon God of Kasuga (the kasuga ryūjin of the play's title) appears, and dances, while speaking to Myōe, and confirming that he has in fact given up his intentions to journey to the continent.
- source : wikipedia -


Kasuga Myoojin 春日明神 Kasuga Myojin
Kasuga Daimyoojin, Kasuga Daimyôjin 春日大明神 Kasuga Daimyojin

comprizes the five kami of Kasuga related to the temple Kofuku-Ji.

Based on the honji suijaku doctrine, separate Buddhist avatars (honjibutsu) were designated for Kasuga shrine's Shisho Myōjin, "Four Bright Kami," and Kasuga daimyōjin the collective name for the "Four Bright Kami" and the uber-kami that those four comprise was considered a Shinto manifestation of the Buddhist Boddhisattva Jihimangyō Bosatsu.
- quote - Sato Masato, Kokugakuin 2007 -

. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .


.......................................................................... Kumamoto 熊本県
玉東町 Gyokuto

The origin of Konoha Saru. 木葉猿の由来。

.......................................................................... Kyoto 京都府

円覚上人 圓智上人 Saint Enchi
Saint Enchi's parents did not have any children, so they prayed to Kasuga Myojin. In a dream he let them know that soon they would have child with a special curse.
Eventually a baby boy was born and the husband made offerings to the Deity.
Just then lightning struck the house and almost the whole family died. The mother became blind and eventually left the child in the wilderness of the pilgrims road to Kasuga Shrine.

. 円覚上人 圓智上人 Saint Enchi (active in Tsugaru around 550) .

.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県
帯解町 Obitake

ryuu 竜 Ryu, Dragon
In the village pond lived a Dragon who ate peopoe, so they tried to drive it away. They lit a fire at the dam of the pond and tried to scare it, but the Dragon did not appear. A Samurai, who walked past, shot an arrow in the pond. The Dragon grabbed the Samurai and flew with him up to heaven. Eventually it begun 雷光 to thunder ad flashes of lightning appeared.
Blood-red raindrops fell into the pond. Eventually the body of the dragon dropped into the pond, all torn with wounds.
The villagers collected the Dragon bones from the pond and made a statue of a Dragon.
The Samurai never appeared again. They say it was an incarnation of
春日明神 the Deity Kasuga Myojin.

誓多林町 Setarincho

Along the 新笠置街道 New Kasagi Road there are two large footprints in a stone wall.
They say they are the footprints from the White Deer which Kasuga Myojin rode when he came from Kashima.


Yonaki Jizo 夜泣地蔵 Jizo crying at night



- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -


- #kasugashrine #kasugamyojin -


Kabuki and Kyogen


Kabuki Theater ... 歌舞伎

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Humanity


An Introduction to Kabuki
Ryohei Matsuda

The word "kabuki" is usually written with three Chinese characters:
ka (songs), bu (dance), and ki (skills). But it actually derives from the classical Japanese verb kabuki meaning "to incline." It also carries the meaning of something eccentric or deviating from the norm.

The action in kabuki plays commonly revolves around Buddhist notions such as the law of retributive justice and the impermanence of things. Confucian traditions of duty, obligation, and filial piety are also expressed on stage.

Historically, kabuki performances have been "off-beat," employing flamboyant costumes, elaborate makeup, and exaggerated body movements to create a sense of the spectacular. This may sound strange to those who imagine that Japanese people highly value harmony and conformity in society. It is ironic that many Japanese people take pride in kabuki as being one of Japan's cultural treasures, but similar eccentric behavior in actual life is highly disapproved of.

Read the full story HERE !
© Ryohei Matsuda

. . . . .

Invitation to Kabuki
Guidance for Kabuki Appreciation

source : unesco/kabuki

Ronald Cavaye explains Kabuki
歌舞伎美人 kabukibito
source :

. WKD : Edo Sanza 江戸三座
the three famous Kabuki theaters of Edo .


Actor Arashi Kitsusaburo I (Rikan)
in the dressing room mirror, with wigs and makeup for various roles"
Shunkōsai Hokushū 春好斎北洲 Shunkosai Hokushu (at.1809-1832)


Kyogen, kyoogen 狂言

CLICK for more photos !Kyogen (literally "mad words" or "wild speech") is a form of traditional Japanese theater. It developed alongside noh, was performed along with noh as an intermission of sorts between noh acts, and retains close links to noh in the modern day; therefore, it is sometimes designated noh-kyogen. However, its content is not at all similar to the formal, symbolic, and solemn noh theater; kyogen is a comical form, and its primary goal is to make its audience laugh.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

aikyoogen, ai-kyoogen 間狂言 interlude
between two parts of a Noh play

chaban, chaban kyoogen 茶番狂言 Chaban Kyogen performance
The lower actors had to prepare tea for their elders, and this has been made into a theabar performance.


。。。。。 kigo for early spring

hatsu-uma kyoogen 初午狂言(はつうまきょうげん)
Kyogen on the first day of the horse in the new year

. first day of the horse, hatsu uma 初午
and the Inari cult


。。。。。 kigo for late spring

Kyogen in March, yayoi kyoogen
弥生狂言 (やよいきょうげん)

..... sangatsu kyoogen 三月狂言(さんがつきょうげん)
a term used in Edo
..... san no kawari 三の替り(さんのかわり)
a term used in Osaka and Kamigata

The most popular performances in this season were "Sukeroku", "Kagamiyama Kokyô no Nishikie"" and "Sendai Hagi".


. Mibu Kyoogen 壬生狂言(みぶきょうげん)
Amida Buddha Prayer Kyogen at temple Mibudera
One of the three famous prayer kyogen.

. . . . .

CLICK for more photos

Nagahama Hikiyama Kyoogen

Nagahama Kyogen performance on festival floats
Nagahama hikiyama matsuri 長浜曳山祭 (ながはまひきやままつり)
Nagahama float festival
April 14 to 24

Nagahama is an old town on the shores of Lake Biwa.
The festival dates back to the time of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who after many years finally became a proud father of a son. He presented gold dust to the villagers of Nagahama, where he lived at that time. The villagers used the gold dust to decorate their festival floats (hikiyama).
The estival floates have children from 5 to 12 years in bright costumes on board, who perform comic performances (kyoogen). The floats are carried around town and to the shrine Hachimangu.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

. Shagiri Music at Nagahama Hikiyama Festival おしゃぎり

. . . . .

. Saga Dainenbutsu Kyoogen
Amida Buddha Prayer Kyogen

at the Shakado hall of temple Seiryo-Ji,Saga, Kyoto 
One of the three famous prayer kyogen.


kigo for early summer

Enmadoo dainenbutsu 閻魔堂大念仏 (えんまどうだいねんぶつ)
Amida prayer nenbutsu at the temple hall Enmado
Enmadoo kyoogen 閻魔堂狂言(えんまどうきょうげん)
senbon dainenbutsu 千本大念仏(せんぼんだいねんぶつ)
One of the three famous prayer kyogen.
. Emma (Enma ten, Enma Oo) 閻魔天、閻魔王
The King of Hell


kigo for mid-summer

Satsuki kyoogen 五月狂言 (さつききょうげん)
Kyogen in the fifth lunar month

..... 皐月狂言(さつききょうげん)
. ..... Soga matsuri 曽我祭(そがまつり)
festival of the Soga brothers

. Takigi Noo, takiginoo 薪能 Noh-Performance at night
takigi sarugaku 薪猿楽(たきぎさるがく)
.... shiba noo芝能(しばのう)Noh on the lawn
wakamiy noo 若宮能(わかみやのう) Noh at a Wakamiya shrine


kigo for late summer

CLICK for more photos
mizukyoogen, mizu kyoogen 水狂言 (みずきょうげん)
"water kyogen"

..... mizugei 水芸(みずげい) tricks with water, performances
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

natsushibai, natsu shibai 夏芝居 (なつしばい)
summer performance
..... doyoo shibai 土用芝居(どようしばい)performance during the dog days
natsu kyoogen 夏狂言(なつきょうげん) summer kyogen
. . . CLICK here for Photos !

CLICK for more photos

kiraigoo 鬼来迎 (きらいごう) "Welcoming the Demons"
..... Oni Mai 鬼舞(おにまい)"Demon's Dance"
Bon-Kyogen performed on the 16th of July, at the temple Hoozaiji 広済寺 in Chiba.
It is performed by the lay people of the parish.


 kigo for early autumn

bon kyoogen 盆狂言 (ぼんきょうげん )
kyogen during the O-Bon ancestor festival
..... bon shibai 初秋 盆芝居(ぼんしばい)Bon-performance
..... bongaeri, bon-gaeri 盆替り(ぼんがわり)


kigo for mid-autumn

aki kyoogen 秋狂言 (あききょうげん)
autumn kyogen
kugatsu kyoogen 九月狂言(くがつきょうげん)kyogen in september
..... nagori kyoogen 名残狂言(なごりきょうげん)
kugatsu shibai 九月芝居(くがつしばい)performance in september

Onagori Kyogen "Farewell Performances"
a term used in kabuki parlance for performances given by actors during the ninth and tenth months, corresponding to the last part of the theatrical year before some actors were scheduled to go on tour in other cities for the next season.

Related terminology could sometimes be complicated. Actors departing Osaka for Edo were referred to as kudari yakusha ("going-down actors"). When actors took the opposite route for their tours and left Edo for Kamigata (the Osaka-Kyoto region), they were, in Kamigata, referred to as nobori yakusha ("actors going up to the capital") or 'Edo nobori' ("going up to the capital from Edo"), although in Edo they were called agari yakusha ("going-up actors").

Terminology for onagori kyôgen also varied, as in Edo these plays were occasionally called aki kyôgen ("autumn plays") or kikuzuki kyôgen ("chrysanthemum-month plays") because they coincided with the Chrysanthemum Festival (ninth day of the ninth month to the fifteenth day of the tenth month). Typically such performances included episodes from popular roles as well as dances created for the special occasions. Other plays that were commonly found in onagori kyôgen included those involving kowakare or 'child separation' scenes in which a parent was forced to abandon a child, a choice of subject obviously linked to the sadness felt by theater fans who were forced to say farewell to their favorite actor before his journey.

Read more HERE


kigo for late autumn

ji shibai, jishibai 地芝居 (じしばい) local performance
..... mura shibai 村芝居(むらしばい)performance in the village
... mura kabuki 村歌舞伎(むらかぶき)village kabuki
... jikyooten, ji kyoogen 地狂言(じきょうげん) village kyogen
(See the link above for details)


observance kigo for mid-winter

. Kaomise 顔見世 "Showing the Faces" .
Seasonal debut of the Kabuki Theater actors
..... Tsuramise 面見世
..... Ashi zoroe 足揃 actors' lineup

shibai shoogatsu 芝居正月(しばいしょうがつ)New Year Performance
Kabuki shoogatsu 歌舞伎正月(かぶきしょうがつ) Kabuki New Year


 kigo for the New Year
(some are listed for spring)

初芝居 Hatsu Shibai, First Kabuki Theater Performance
..... ni no kae, ni no kawari 二の替
..... First Kyogen, hatsuharu kyoogen 初春狂言, spring performance, haru shibai 春芝居
..... First Soga Performance, hatsu soga 初曽我
(The Revenge Story of the Soga Brothers 曾我物語 and Lady Tora 虎御前)


. Doing Business in Edo - 江戸の商売 .

senjimono uri 煎物売 The Tea Seller
senjimono 煎物  is a medicinal drink and
the name of a Kyogen play "The Tea Seller".
This seller is disturbing the Gion Matsuri festival rehearsals.
He mimics a dance with a little double-headed drum (kakko (羯鼓 or 鞨鼓) .


DANJURO XII in an interview with the Japan Times:

Freedom is fine; but I get the feeling that many modern-day Japanese have forgotten that freedom comes with responsibility. This concept is found in kabuki, so people who come to watch it will be exposed to the responsibility of freedom as well as freedom's limits.

Think of freedom as a dog that feels free to run around a fenced garden. It feels satisfied because it is not stuck in the house, even though it doesn't have the freedom to go outside the garden. Freedom exists inside the garden as well as outside.
But there is a barrier.
Nowadays, there is no such barrier.
I think kabuki expresses the freedom that exists within a barrier.

Read the full interview in our libraty:
Destined to act wild


In 2007, NHK introduces some
Kabuki from Osaka, kamigata kabuki 上方歌舞伎

A word of advise from the first Sakata Tojuro

(Sakata Toojuuroo 坂田藤十郎)

miburi wa kokoro no amari ni shite

posture, gesture must come from the overflowing heart .

In Osaka Kabuki, the main actor wears a robe made of paper, kamiko 紙衣. This does not flow naturally around the body and the actor has to make extra efforts to show a natural pose.


painting of the face, kumadori 隈取
make-up used in the Kabuki theatre.

External LINK with some samples

. Cats and Daruma with Kumadori ! .

Worldwide use

Things found on the way

Kabuki Daruma 歌舞伎だるま !!!!!

. Nomura Mansai 野村萬斎 (1966 - ) .
playing Abe no Seimei 阿倍晴明 (921 - 1005)


kaomise ya otozure hayaki kyoo no yuki

showing of faces -
an early visitor was
the snow in Kyoto
Kubota Mantaroo 久保田万太郎
(Tr. Gabi Greve)


kaomise no uwasa mo tooshi Saga zumai

the rumors of first showing faces,
they are so far away ...
living in Saga
Ooshima Tamiroo 大島民郎
(Tr. Gabi Greve)


Minamiza no kaomise chikashi yasuke zushi

Iwashiro Noriko 岩城のり子


kaomise ya kyoo ni orireba Kyoo kotoba

first show of faces -
getting off the train in Kyoto
they speak Kyoto dialect
Hashimono Takako 橋本多佳子
(Tr. Gabi Greve)


waga sumishi meiji no yo nari hatsu shibai  

the world turned Meiji
where I now live in -
first Kabuki performance

Takahama Kyoshi 高浜虚子
(Tr. Gabi Greve)


chaya e yuku watari no yuki ya hatsu shibai

first Kabuki performance !
the snow has piled up
to the tea house  

Kubota Mantaroo 久保田万太郎
(Tr. Gabi Greve)

The tea house was a place where the visitors would have a cup before going to the theater.


kunimoto no haha ga kite-ite nino kawari     

Tomiyasu Fuusei 富安風生


"ki" no irite hikishimaru hi ya hatsushibai)

Mizuhara Shuoshi (1892 - 1981)水原秋櫻子


Kabuki actor and Haiku poet

Nakamura Tomijuuro 初代中村富十郎 1719 - August 3, 1786
Musume Dojoji 娘道成寺

. Nakamura Kanzaburo 中村 勘三郎 .
1955 – 2012
and the Nakamura-Za in Sakai 堺町, Edo

Related words

***** Ceremonies of Japan

***** Kuromori Kabuki 黒森歌舞伎

***** . Irumagawa 入間川 River Iruma - Kyogen .

***** Paper clothing, paper robes (kamiko)





Memorial Days WINTER



Memorial Days of Famous People



.. Famous People

AROO, Usuda Aro 臼田亜浪
November 11. (1879-1951)
Haiku poet.
Aroo Ki 亜浪忌 (あろうき)
Usuda Aroo / LINKS

Basho, Matsuo BASHO
(1644-1694). Haiku Poet.
Basho Ki 芭蕉忌
"Winter Rain" Anniversary (shigure Ki 時雨忌 (しぐれき)
... shigure-e 時雨会)
Old Master's Day (Okina no hi 翁の日, おきなき)
... Okina no Hi 翁の日(おきなのひ)
Green Peach Day (Toosei ki 桃青忌, とうせいき) 
Meeting in Memory of Basho, bashoo E 芭蕉会(ばしょうえ)

BONIFACIO Philippines
Andres Bonifacio (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897). Political Hero.

BUSON, Yosa Buson 与謝蕪村
1716 – December 25, 1784. Haiku Poet and Painter.
Buson Ki 蕪村忌 (ぶそんき)
Shunsei Ki 春星忌(しゅんせいき)

CHIKAMATSU, Chikamatsu Monzaemon 近松門左衛門
Sugimori Nobumori, 杉森信盛
1653 – 6 January 1725. Scenario writer for Puppet Theater (bunraku)
Chikamatsu Ki 近松忌 (ちかまつき)
Soorin shi Ki 巣林子忌(そうりんしき)
Soorin Ki 、巣林忌(そうりんき)
Chikamatsu Monzaemon / FACTS

DAITOO Kokushi 大燈国師
Daitoo Ki 大燈忌(だいとうき)
Memorial Day of the Founder of Daitoku-Ji Temple, Daitoku-ji Kaisan-Ki 大徳寺開山忌 (だいとくじかいさんき)
Daitoo Kokushi Ki 大燈国師忌(だいとうこくしき)
Daito Kokushi LINKS

DARUMA Daishi 達磨大師, Bodhidharuma
Daruma Memorial Day, Daruma-Ki 達磨忌
Shoorin Ki 少林忌(しょうりんき)
"Day of the Founder", shoso Ki 初祖忌(しょそき)
Daruma Snowman 雪達磨 Daruma as a Snowman
Daruma Museum Japan / Gabi Greve

. EIKAN, Priest Eikan of Temple Zenrin-Ji 永観 .
November 2. 長元6年(1033年) - 天永2年11月2日(1111年12月4日)
Eikan Ki 永観忌 (えいかんき) Eikan Memorial Day

EN NO GYOJA and Shugendoo
En no Gyooja Ki 役行者忌

HAKUSHUU, Kitahara Hakushu 北原 白秋, Kitahara Hakushū
25 January 1885 – 2 November 1942
Pen-name of tanka poet Kitahara Ryūkichi (北原隆吉).
Hakushuu Ki 白秋忌 (はくしゅうき)
Kitahara Hakushū / FACTS

HAKYOO, Ishida Hakyoo 石田 波郷(いしだ はきょう)
(1913-1969)/ 1913年3月18日 - 1969年11月21日
Hakyoo Ki 波郷忌 (はきょうき)
Nintoo Ki 忍冬忌(にんとうき)
Fuukaku Ki 風鶴忌(ふうかくき)
Shakumyoo Ki 惜命忌(しゃくみょうき)

HEKIGOTOO, Kawahigashi Hekigoto 河東碧梧桐
1873年02月26日 ~ 1937年02月01日
Hekigotoo Ki 碧梧桐忌 (へきごとうき)
"Day when the cold ends", Kan-ake Ki 寒明忌(かんあけき)

HISAJO, Sugita Hisajo 杉田久女
May 30, 1890 - January 1, 1946
Hisajo Ki 久女忌 ( ひさじょき)

CLICK for more photos
ICHIYOO, Higuchi Ichiyo 樋口 一葉
May 2, 1872 - November 23, 1896
Female Higuchi Natsu (樋口奈津), Higuchi Natsuko (樋口夏子).
Ichiyo Ki 一葉忌 (いちようき)

IPPEKIROO, Nakatsuka Ippekiro 中塚一碧楼
(1887 ~ 1946)
Ippekiroo Ki 一碧楼忌 (いっぺきろうき)
Ippekiro Nakatsuka / FACTS

ISAMU, Yoshii Isamu 吉井勇
November 19. (8 October 1886 - 19 November 1960)
Isamu Ki 勇忌 (いさむき)
"This and That.. Day" Kanikaku かにかく忌(かにかくき)
Kootoo Ki 紅燈忌(こうとうき)
Isamu Yoshii / FACTS

ISSA, Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶
(June 15, 1763 - January 5, 1828)
Issa Ki 一茶忌 (いっさき)

JESUS Christ and Christmas
JESUS Christ and Easter

JINGEN, Tenkai, 天海(てんかい)
(1536-1643) 1536年(天文5年)? - 1643年11月13日(寛永20年10月2日)
High Priest of the Tendai Sect. He was close to Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Jigen Ki 慈眼忌(じげんき)
Founder of Temple Toeizan, Tooeizan Kaisan Ki 東叡山開山忌 (とうえいざんかいさんき)
Jigen Daishi Ki 慈眼大師忌(じげんだいしき)
Tenkai and Temple Kanei-Ji in Ueno

John the Apostle
Sei Johanne no hi 聖ヨハネの日 (せいよはねのひ) Day of Saint John

KAKUNYO, Saint Kakunyo 覚如
文永7年12月28日(1271年2月9日) - 正平6年/観応2年1月19日(1351年2月15日)
Kakunyo-Ki 覚如忌
First chief priest of the Temple Hongan-ji, Kyoto.
. Honganji 本願寺 Hongan-Ji, Hongwanji . Kyoto

. Keichuu, Keichū 契沖 阿闍梨 Keichu Ajari .
Keichuuki, Keichuu Ki 契沖忌 Memorial Day for Keichu
契沖の忌日 / 正月二十五日 / 25th day of the first lunar month
(sometimes listed as "New Year" or "Spring))

KIKEI, Takai Kikei 高井几圭
December 23. (1687-1761)
Father of Kito.
Kikei Ki 几圭忌 (きけいき)
Takai Kikei / Japanese LINKS

KITOO, Takai Kito 高井几董
October 23. (1741-1789)。Disciple of Buson. Second Son of Kikei.
Kitoo Ki 几董忌 (きとうき)
Takai Kito / LINKS

KOBO DAISHI, Kukai (Kooboo Daishi, Kuukai) 弘法大師 空海
Winter Kigo for him.

KUYA, Saint Kuya, Kuya Shonin 空也
(903-72) Priest of the Pure Land Sect
Kuuya-Ki 空也忌 (くうやき)
Kuuya Nenbutsu 空也念仏
..... Hachi Tataki 鉢叩 Memorial Service for Kuuya Shoonin

MISHIMA , Mishima Yukio, Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫)
Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威)
January 14, 1925–November 25, 1970. Author and playwright.
Mishima Ki 三島忌 (みしまき)
Yuukoku Ki 憂国忌(ゆうこくき)
Yukio Ki由紀夫忌(ゆきおき)
Yukio Mishima / FACTS
- - - Descending to the depths of Yukio Mishima’s ‘Sea of Fertility’
- source : Japan Times, August 2015 -

MYOE 明恵 (Myooe, Myo-E, Myōe) Toomyoo Myoe 東明慧日
文永9年(1272) - 暦応3年/興国元年10月4日(1340, October 25)
Buddhist monk active during the Kamakura period
Myooe-Ki 明慧忌 (みょうえき)
Toomyoo enichi 東明慧日(とうみょうえにち)
Myōe / FACTS

MYOOSHIN-JI Temple Founder 妙心寺開山
Kanzan Egen Zenji 関山慧玄 慧玄(かんざんえげん、無相大師)
Founded in the year 1342 by the venerable Zen Master Kanzan-Egen Zenji (1277-1360)
Myooshinji Kaisan-Ki 妙心寺開山忌 (みょうしんじかいさんき)
Kanzan Ki 関山忌(かんざんき)
Musoo Ki 無相忌(むそうき)
Temple Myoshin-Ji / FACTS

Pandit Jawaharlal NEHRU India.
Frost- Hemant Season of India
Birthday on November 14

CLICK for more photos
NICOLAUS, Saint Nicolaus, Santa Claus
St. Nicholas. Nikolaus. December 6.

OTSUJI, Oosuga Otsuji 大須賀乙字
(Seki Osuga) Poet from Fukushima.
Otsuji Ki 乙字忌 (おつじき )
Kanrai Ki 寒雷忌(かんらいき)
Hatsuka Ki 二十日忌(はつかき)
Osuga Otsuji / LINKS

RANSETSU, Hattori Ransetsu 服部嵐雪 (はっとりらんせつ)
承応3年(1654年) - 宝永4年10月13日(1707年11月6日)
Ransetsu Ki 嵐雪忌 らんせつき

ROOBEN, Priest Roben 良弁僧正
689 - 773; postum: Konshō gyōja). Abbot at temple Todai-Ji Nara
Rooben-Ki 良弁忌

ROOKA, Saint Roka of the temple Zuisen-Ji
November 11, October 9. (1672 - 1703)
Haiku poet and disciple of Basho.
Rooka Ki 浪化忌 (ろうかき)

RYOKAN, Ryokan San (Ryookan 良寛)
(1758–1831) Ryōkan Taigu
Ryookan-Ki 良寛忌

SEKITEI, Hara Sekitei 原石鼎
December 20. (1889 ~ 1951)
Haiku Poet of the Hototogisu group.
Sekitei Ki 石鼎忌 (せきていき)
Hara Sekitei / LINKS

SHINRAN, Saint Shinran, Shinran Shoonin 親鸞聖人
Saint Shinran 親鸞聖人
Goshoo-Ki 御正忌 Memorial Services at Temple Hongan-Ji
hooonkoo 報恩講(ほうおんこう) Ho-onko, Hoonko, Hoon-Ko service for Shinran
Betsuji Nenbutsu-E 別時念仏会 Memorial Service for Shinran Shoonin
Otorikoshi 御取越 Memorial Ceremony for Shinran Shoonin
Okoonagi 御講凪 Memorial Ceremony for Shinran Shoonin
. Honganji 本願寺 Hongan-Ji, Hongwanji . Kyoto

SOOJOO, Hino Sojo, Hino Soojoo 日野草城
1901年(明治34年)7月18日 - 1956年(昭和31年)1月29日)
Soojoo Ki 草城忌 (そうじょうき)
"Crane in the Cold" Day, Itezuru Ki 凍鶴忌(いてづるき)
Kairui Ki 鶴唳忌(かくるいき)
Tookaku Ki 東鶴忌(とうかくき)
"Silver Day", Shirogane 銀忌(しろがねき)

SOOKAN, Yamazaki Sokan 山崎宗鑑
October 2. 1465-1553. Haikai and renga poet.
Sookan Ki 宗鑑忌 (そうかんき)

SOOSEKI, Natsume Soseki 夏目漱石
9 February 1867 - 9 December 1916. Novelist of the Meiji Era
Sooseki Ki 漱石忌 (そうせきき)

STEPHEN, Saint Stephen Ireland
St Stephen was the first Martyr in Christian history.

TEITOKU, Matsunaga Teitoku 松永貞德
November 15. (1571-1653)
Founder of the Teitoku Haiku Group.
Teitoku Ki 貞德忌 (ていとくき)
Matsunaga Teitoku / LINKS

TOOFUKUJI Temple Founder 東福寺開山
Kaisan-Ki 東福寺開山忌 Memorial Day for the Founder of Temple Tofuku-Ji
His name was Enni Ben’en 圓爾辯圓 (1201–1280).
Shooichi Ki, Sei Ichi Ki 聖一忌 (しょういちき) (せいいちき)
Kokushi Ki 国師忌(こくしき)
Bentoo Osame 行廚納 (べんとうおさめ)
The temple was established in 1236 by the chancellor Kujo Michiie 九条道家 (1192–1252)
Temple Tofukuji / FACTS
Temple Name: Tofuku-ji 東福寺/ More FACTS

TORAHIKO, Terada Torahiko 寺田 寅彦
November 28, 1878 - December 31, 1935
Physicist and author
Torahiko Ki 寅彦忌 (とらひこき) // Tora Hiko Ki 寅日子忌(とらひこき)
Fuyuhiko Ki 冬彦忌(ふゆひこき)
. yosamusa ya hyakki yagyoo no emakimono .
Torahiko Terada / FACTS

Xavier, Saint Francis Xavier
Sei Sabieru no hi 聖ザビエルの日 (せいざびえるのひ) Day of Saint Xavier

YAICHI, Aizu Yaichi 会津 八一
August 1, 1881 - November 21, 1956
Poet, calligrapher and historian.
Yaichi Ki 八一忌 (やいちき)
Shuusoo Ki 秋艸忌(しゅうそうき)
Konsai Ki 渾斎忌(こんさいき)
Aizu Yaichi / FACTS

YOKOMITSU, Yokomitsu Riichi (横光利一)
17 March 1898 - 30 December 1947) Autor. Friend of Kyoshi.
横光忌 よこみつき
Ri-Ichi 利一忌(りいちき)
Ri-Ichi no Ki 利一の忌(りいちのき)
Riichi Yokomitsu / FACTS

YUIMA, Vimalakirti 維摩
The first Zen Buddhist Master.
Yuima-E 維摩会 (ゆいまえ) Ceremony for Yuima
Koofukuji Yuima e 興福寺維摩会(こうふくじゆいまえ)
..... Joomyoo e 浄名会(じょうみょうえ)
(Jomyo is another name fro Yuima, Vimalakirti.)


Not in the Japanese Saijiki

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day USA
January 15

. WKD Kigo Calendar - the 12 Months .
Check here for the most important days.



***** Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets

***** Saijiki of Buddhist, Shinto and other Ceremonies and Events of Japan

***** Introducing Famous Japanese People
Darumapilgrims by Gabi Greve

***** Saijiki of Famous People / TOP of THIS BLOG



WINTER Ceremonies


The Asian Lunar Calendar and Ceremonies

A lunar month started with no-moon, had the full moon on the 15th and 28 days to go.
The first lunar month of a year started the round of 12 months.
With the calendar reform in Japan, things changed, making the life of a haiku poet more difficult.

Please read the details here:

. The Asian Lunar Calendar and the
changing Dates of Japanese Ceremonies

In "early winter" we have kigo that relate to the harvest thanksgiving ceremonies of the tenth lunar month.

In December (mid-winter kigo)
we have a lot of preparations for the New Year.

November, December, January



... ... ... LAST ceremonies of the year (osame, hate, tome ...)
Many of them have the corresponding FIRST ceremony in the New Year Saijiki.

Fuda Osame 札納 Bringing back the old year amulets
..... osamefuda 納札(おさめふだ)
First and Last Ceremonies of the year

Haki osame 掃納 (はきおさめ) end of sweeping the floors

Hari osame 針納(はりおさめ) "end of the needlework"
hari yasumi 針休み(はりやすみ)
hari osame 針納(はりおさめ) putting away the needles
hari matsuri 針祭(はりまつり)needle festival
hari kuyoo 針供養 in Kyoto and Kansai

Koto osame 事納 (ことおさめ) end of work
..... osame yooka 納め八日(おさめようか) end on the eighth day
. . . . . and
. . . . . and
Koto hajime 事始(ことはじめ)start of work, work begins

Osame Fudoo 納不動
Last Fudo Myo-O Ceremony of a Year

Osame no Konpira 納の金毘羅 (おさめのこんぴら)
Last Ceremony at the shrine Konpira

..... shimai Konpira 終金毘羅(しまいこんぴら)

Osame no Kooshin 納の庚申 (おさめのこうしん)
Last Koshin Ceremony

..... hate no kooshin 果の庚申(はてのこうしん)
..... tome kooshin 止庚申(とめこうしん)

Osame no Suitenguu 納の水天宮 (おさめのすいてんぐう)
Last Ceremony for the God of Water

Osame Tenjin 終天神 (しまいてんじん)
Last Ceremony for Tenjin

Gojoo Tenman mairi 五条天神参 (ごじょうてんじんまいり)
Visiting Gojo Tenmangu, Ueno, Tokyo or Kyoto
in memory of Sugawara Michizane

Shimai Daishi 終大師 Last Ceremony for Kobo Daishi
Osame no Daishi 納めの大師
hate no Daishi 果ての大師
shimai Kooboo (shimai Kobo) 終弘法
..... also
First Ceremonies of the year
Daishikoo 大師講 Daishi Ceremony Group Kobo Daishi, Kukai


Betsuji nenbutsu 別時念仏 (べつじねんぶつ) special nenbutsu prayer
jishuusaimatsu betsuji 時宗歳末別時(じしゅうさいまつべつじ)

butsumyooe 仏名会 (ぶつみょうえ)
Chanting of the Buddhas' Names

"depictions of the Buddhas", Butsumyo-E, Butsumyo Ceremony
..... o butsumyoo 御仏名(おぶつみょう)
kazukewata, kazuke wata 被綿(かずけわた)"covering cotton"
Kaenashi no kenpai 栢梨の献盃(かえなしのけんぱい)ritual drink of Kaenashi

Chiba warai 千葉笑 (ちばわらい) "laughing in Chiba"

Chichibu Yomatsuri 秩父夜祭 . Chichibu Night Festival
Chichibu Matsuri 秩父祭(ちちぶまつり)

Chishaku-in rongi 智積院論義 (ちしゃくいんろんぎ)
public debate at temple Chishaku-In

Kyoto, Shingon sect

Christian Celebrations in Winter
kanshasai 感謝祭 (かんしゃさい) Thanksgiving
Sei Sabieru no hi 聖ザビエルの日 (せいざびえるのひ)Day of Saint Xavier
taikoosetsu 待降節 (たいこうせつ) advent
seitaisetsu 聖胎節 (せいたいせつ) day of the Immaculate Conception (of Virgin Mary)
kurisumasu クリスマス Christmas, Weihnachten
seikazoku no hi 聖家族の日 (せいかぞくのひ) Day of the Holy Family
Sei Johanne no hi 聖ヨハネの日 (せいよはねのひ) Day of Saint John
seishokusai 聖燭祭 (せいしょくさい) candlemass
koogen no hi 公現の日 (こうげんのひ) Epiphany / Three Kings Day


Daijinguu fuda kubari 大神宮札配 (だいじんぐうふだくばり)
distributing amulets from Ise shrine

Also performed at other great shrines.
. . . . . and from Ise Shrine
Saiguu no ema 斎宮絵馬 (さいぐうのえま) votive plaquets at Saigu
Ituski no miya no ema 斎宮絵馬(いつきのみやのえま)

Daikotaki 大根焚 Cooking large radishes
Temple Senbon Shakado 千本釈迦堂, Kyoto, Feb. 10 - 13
Narutaki no daikotaki 鳴滝の大根焚 (なるたきのだいこたき)
Daikotaki 大根焚き(お会式)for Saint Nichiren
Temple Sanpo-Ji 三寳寺
Daikon, Radish

Daishi koo 大師講 Ceremonies at Mount Hiei-zan for the founder, Dengyo Daishi.
Memorial day for Tendai Daishi, Tendai Daishi Ki 天台大師忌(てんだいだいしき). Memorial day for Chisha Daishi, Chisha Daishi Ki 智者大師忌(ちしゃだいしき) .Tendai Prayer Ceremony, Tendai e、天台会(てんだいえ). Tenday Prayer Ceremony at November,
shimotsuki e 霜月会(しもつきえ).Great Ceremony at Mount Hieizan, Hieizan hokke e
比叡山法華会(ひえいざんほっけえ). "Great Master's Gruel", Daishi gayu 大師粥

Doyadoya matsuri どやどや祭り Doyadoya naked festival
Osaka, Shitennoji

Ebisu-koo 恵比寿講 Ebisu Ceremony Group
..... Ebisu Matsuri, 夷子祭 Ebisu Festival

Fuigo matsuri 鞴祭 bellows festival
Swordsmith's Festsival, kaji matsuri 鍛冶祭
Bellows Festival, tatara matsuri 踏鞴祭
Throwing mandarins (small oranges) mikan maki 蜜柑撒, 蜜柑捲
..... lighting fire for the god Inari, inari no o-hotaki 稲荷の御火焚

Fuyu Ango 冬安居 Winter Retreat for Monks
yuki ango 雪安居(ゆきあんご) Retreat for monks in snow

Gegen 下元 (かげん) last third of the year cememony
..... gegen no setsu 下元の節(かげんのせつ)
First third of the year (joogen)

Gishi-E 義士会 Memorial Ceremony for the 47 Samurai graves of the 47 Ronin at Sengakuji

Gojuu Sooden 五重相伝 Secret Ceremony of the Pure Land Sect

Gonichi no noo 後日の能 (ごにちののう) last Noh performance
..... go-en no noo 後宴の能(ごえんののう)

Gosechi Mai , gosechi no mai 五節の舞 Dance of the Five Maidens
..... go sechi 五節(ごせち)、gosechi no choodai kokoromi 五節帳台試(ごせちのちょうだいのこころみ)、gosechi no gozen kokoromi 五節御前試(ごせちのごぜんのこころみ)


Hachi Tataki 鉢叩 鉢敲, 鉢扣 
Memorial Service for Kuuya Shoonin

early winter

Hagoita ichi 羽子板市 (はごいたいち) battledore market

Haka kakou 墓囲ふ Preparing the graves for New Year

Hakamagi 袴着 (はかまぎ) wearing a hakama trousers for the first time
at Shichigosan

Hieizan hokke e 比叡山法華会
Great Ceremony at Mount Hieizan

Prayer group for the Great Master, daishi koo
大師講 だいしこう
Memorial day for Tendai Daishi, Tendai Daishi Ki
Memorial day for Chisha Daishi, Chisha Daishi Ki
Tendai Prayer Ceremony, Tendai e、天台会(てんだいえ)
"Rice Gruel for Priest Chi-E", Chie gayu 智慧粥
"Great Master's Gruel", Daishi gayu 大師粥
gruel on the 18th day, juuhachi gayu 十八粥
fuguri gayu ふぐり粥(ふぐりがゆ

Hiiragi sasu 柊挿す (ひいらぎさす) piercing with a holly

Hikage no kazura 日蔭の蔓 (ひかげのかずら)
lit. "kazura vine in the shadow"

hikage no ito 日蔭の糸(ひかげのいと)"string in the shadow"
hikage no kokoroba 日蔭の心葉(ひかげのこころば)
kokoroba 心葉(こころば) "leaf of the heart"

Hio no tsukai 氷魚の使 (ひおのつかい) Messenger for iced Fish

Hoshi Matsuri 星祭 Star Festivals and Star Shrines (Hoshi Jinja)


Iba Hajime 射場始 Imperial Ceremony of first shooting in Winter
..... yuba hajime 弓場始(ゆばはじめ)

Inoko, i no ko 亥の子 (いのこ) wild boar
i no hi matsuri 亥の日祭(いのひまつり)festival on the day of the boar
i no kami matsuri 亥の神祭(いのかみまつり)festival for the deity of the wild boar
..... and many more about Marishi Ten

Itsukushima chinza sai 厳島鎮座祭 (いつくしまちんざさい)
Itsukushima Shrine dedication festival

oshimeshi, o shime shi 御燈消(おしめし)"turning off the lights"
yamaguchi toji no matsuri 山口閉の祭(やまぐちとじのまつり)
"closing down mountain roads" festival

Izumo Taisha Niiname sai 出雲大社新嘗祭 Thanksgiving Ceremony at Izumo Shrine
"Celebrations of the First Taste"

Joya moode 除夜詣(じょやもうで)shrine visit at the last night
..... joya no kane 除夜の鐘
..... hyakuhachi no kane 百八の鐘(ひゃくはちのかね)
Last Day of the Year (oomisoka 大晦日, Japan)

juuya 十夜 (じゅうや) the 10th night
Ceremony for Amida Buddha
honorable tenth night, o juuya 御十夜(おじゅうや)
tenth night ritual, juuya hooyoo 十夜法要(じゅうやほうよう)
gruel at the tenth night, juuya gayu
prayer gongs at the 10th night, juuya gane 十夜鉦(じゅうやがね)
temple with ceremonies at the 10th night, juuya dera
monk at the 10th night, juuya soo十夜僧(じゅうやそう)
old woman at the 10th night, juuya baba
persimmons for the 10th night, juuya gaki


Kakashi age, kakashiage 案山子揚 (かがしあげ)
taking the scarecrows down

..... some no toshitori そめの年取り(そめのとしとり)

. Kagura 神楽 (かぐら) Kagura dance
..... kami asobi 神遊び(かみあそび)Gods enjoying themselves
..... kagura uta 神楽歌(かぐらうた)kagura song
mikagura 御神楽(みかぐら)
niwabi 庭燎(にわび)
sato kagura 里神楽 (さとかぐら)
yokagura 夜神楽 (よかぐら) Kagura dance at night
..... kagura yado 神楽宿(かぐらやど)
..... hosha 祝者(ほしゃ)

Kakure Nenbutsu かくれ念仏 Secret Nenbutsu Dance, Memory of Kuuya Shoonin
..... Namu Amida Butsu, the Amida Prayer

Kamabarai 竈祓 (かまばらい) purification of the hearth
..... Koojin barai 荒神祓(こうじんばらい)purification of the Kojin deity
kama no kami matsuri 竈の神祭(かまのかみまつり)festival of the hearth deity
..... kama matsuri 竈祭(かままつり)
kama shime 竈注連(かましめ)shime decoration for the hearth

Kamioki, kami oki 髪置 (かみおき) binding up the hair
..... kushi oki 櫛置(くしおき) using a comb
migushi age, migushiage 御髪上 (みぐしあげ)
memorial service for old combs, hair and nails

Kamiko 紙衣 Cloths, robes of washi paper
to keep the monks warm.

Kami no tabi 神の旅 (かみのたび) "God on a trip"
the gods are absent, kami no rusu 神の留守
saying good bye to the gods, sending off the gods
..... kami okuri 神送り
"gods-present month", month with the gods in Izumo
kamiarizuki 神有月
welcoming the gods, greeting the gods in Izumo
..... kami mukae 神迎

Kamioki, kami oki 髪置 (かみおき) binding up the hair
..... kushi oki 櫛置(くしおき) using a comb
For Children at Shichi Go San ceremonies.

Kan Gori, kangori 寒垢離 Ascetic practises in the Cold
..... Kan Mairi, kanmairi 寒参 Temple Visit in the Cold
..... kanmoode 寒詣(かんもうで)
Kan Nenbutsu 寒念仏 Nenbutsu Prayer in the Cold
Kan Segyoo 寒施行 Ascetic practises in the Cold
kangyoo 寒行(かんぎょう
hadaka mairi 裸参(はだかまいり)naked visit to a shrine

Kanshasai 感謝祭 (かんしゃさい) Thanksgiving
..... shuukaku kanshasai 収穫感謝祭(しゅうかくかんしゃさい)
harvest thanksgiving

Kaomise 顔見世 "Showing the Faces"
Seasonal debut of the Kabuki Theater actors
..... Tsuramise 面見世
..... Ashi zoroe 足揃 actors' lineup

Kayu 粥 Rice Gruel and related ceremonies
gruel at the tenth night, juuya gayu 十夜粥. "Gruel for Priest Chi-E", Chie gayu 智慧粥
. winter solstice gruel, tooji gayu 冬至粥 (とうじがゆ). offering gruel to the poor, kayu segyoo 粥施行.

Kasuga matsuri, Wakamiya On Matsuri ... 春日若宮御祭

Kasuga Shrine Festivals. "THE Festival" on matsuri 御祭(おんまつり).
..... Kasuga mantooroo 春日万燈籠 (かすがまんとうろう). Kasuga no mantoo 春日の万燈(かすがのまんとう)

Kazari-uri, kazariuri (かざりうり)
vendor of New Year decorations

Kinroo kansha no hi 勤労感謝の日
Labour Thanksgiving Day

Kisshoo-in hakkoo 吉祥院八講 きっしょういんはっこう
Ceremony at temple Kisho-In
Kisshoo-in hokke e 吉祥院法華会(きっしょういんほっけえ)

Koofukuji hokke e 興福寺法華会 (こうふくじほっけえ)
ceremony of the Lotus Sutra at temple Kofuku-Ji

. . . . . and
Yuima-E 維摩会 Ceremony for Yuima (Vimalakirti)
Koofukuji Yuima-e 興福寺維摩会(こうふくじゆいまえ)
Joomyoo e 浄名会(じょうみょうえ)

Koogen no hi 公現の日 (こうげんのひ) Epiphany
Three Kings Day, January 6
gokoogen 御公現(ごこうげん)
ju no gokoogen no iwaibi

Kooya Doofu 高野豆腐 Dry Tofu from Mt. Koya

Koyomi no Soo 暦の奏 Imperial Ceremony of perparing the new calendar
..... Goryaku no soo 御暦の奏(ごりゃくのそう)、rekisoo 暦奏(れきそう)

kurisumasu クリスマス Christmas, Weihnachten
..... kootansai 降誕祭(こうたんさい)
with many more related kigo

Kuma matsuri 熊祭  (くままつり) bear festival Ainu, Hokkaido

Kurokawa noo 黒川能 (くろかわのう ) Kurokawa Noh performance
Oogisai 王祗祭(おうぎさい) oogi ceremony
Yamagata pref.

Kyuushuu basho 九州場所 (きゅうしゅうばしょ) Kyushu Sumo Tournament


Maizuru Daruma Matsuri ..... 舞鶴だるま祭りDaruma Festival in Maizuru Town

Matsu mukae 松迎え (まつむかえ)
bringing out the kadomatsu decorations

matsubayashi 松ばやし(まつばやし)"festival music for the pines"
kadomatsu oroshi 門松おろし(かどまつおろし)

Meiji Jinguu sai 明治神宮祭 (めいじじんぐうさい)
Shrine Meiji Jingu Festival

and Yoyogi no Mai Dance

Mekari no shinji 和布刈神事 (めかりのしんじ)
ceremony of cutting wakame seaweed

..... mekari 和布刈(めかり)cutting seaweed
..... mekari negi 和布刈禰宜(めかりねぎ)
Shinto priest porforming the mekari ritual

Migushi age, migushiage 御髪上 (みぐしあげ)
memorial service for old combs, hair and nails

Mikawa matsuri 三河花祭(みかわはなまつり)Mikawa Festival
..... hana matsuri 花祭 (はなまつり) flower festival
..... hana kagura 花神楽(はなかぐら)flower Kagura dance
..... sakaki oni 榊鬼(さかきおに)Sakaki demon

Mi matsuri 箕祭 (みまつり)
festival when putting the winnow away

..... mi osame 箕納(みおさめ)
kuwa osame 鍬納(くわおさめ)putting the hoe/plough away

Misoka soba 晦日蕎麦 (みそかそば)
buckwheat noodles on the last day of the year

Mootoo no Jun 孟冬の旬 Imperial Ceremony of givng frozen fish
..... hio o tamau 氷魚を賜う(ひおをたまう)

Morotabune no shinji 諸手船神事 (もろたぶねのしんじ)
Morotabune Ship Race Ceremony

morotabune 諸手船(もろたぶね)"decorated boats"
iyaho no matsuri 八百穂祭(いやほのまつり)
Ritual of 800 rice ears
mikuji ubai 御籤奪(みくじうばい)
fighting for fortune-telling slips

Munakata sai 宗像祭 (むなかたさい) Munakata Ceremony
koshiki sai 古式祭(こしきさい)festival in the old style
古式祭(御座)/ 鎮火祭
Munakata Shrine, Fukuoka

muuchii 鬼餅 (むうちい . ムーチー)
muchi, "demon mochi"

..... muuchi zamu 鬼餅寒(むうちいざむ)"demon mochi" in the cold
Okinawa, December 8


Nematsuri 子祭 (ねまつり) "Festival of the Rat/Mouse"
..... futamata daikon 二股大根(ふたまただいこん)two-pronged radish
yome daikon 嫁大根(よめだいこん)"radish like a bride"
Daikoku matsuri 大黒祭(だいこくまつり)Daikoku festival
(sometimes placed as New Year kigo)
tooshin uri 燈心売(とうしんうり)vendors of wicks
netooshin 子燈心(ねとうしん) wick sold on th day of the rat

Niiname no matsuri 新嘗祭 Imperial Ceremony of New Food Offerings
..... New Food festival. Niinamesai 新嘗祭(にいなめさい)、Shinjoosai 新嘗祭(しんじょうさい)、shinjooe 新嘗会(しんじょうえ)、oonie matsuri 大嘗祭(おおにえまつり)、daijoosai 大嘗祭(だいじょうさい)

Nosaki 荷前の使 (のさきのつかい)
imperial envoy to bring first fruits to graves
..... nosaki no hako 荷前の箱(のさきのはこ)box holding the tribute


Obitoki 帯解 (おびとき) "opening the belt"
obi naoshi 帯直(おびなおし)changing the belt
himotoki, himo toki 紐解(ひもとき)
himo naoshi 紐直(ひもなおし)
himo otoshi 紐落(ひもおとし)

Ohotaki, o ho taki 御火焚 (おほたき) "making a bonfire"
..... ohotaki 御火焼(おほたき)
ohitaki, o hi taki おひたき
oshitake, o shi take おしたけ

Okami 岡見 (おかみ) "looking down the hill"
..... sakasa mino 逆蓑(さかさみの)"straw raincoat upside down"

okotohajime, o koto hajime お事始め "begin of work"
first day of the 12th lunar month

Omigoromo, o mi goromo 小忌衣 Imperial Ceremonial Robe
..... Omi no sode 小忌の袖(おみのそで)、aozuri no koromo 青摺の衣(あおずりのころも)

Oohara zakone 大原雑魚寝 (おおはらざこね)
sleeping together at Ohara

.... zakone 雑魚寝(ざこね) "group sleep"
"like all kinds of fish"
Setsubun, at shrine 江文神社 Ebumi Jinja

Ooji no kitsunebi 王子の狐火 (おうじのきつねび) day of the fox at Oji Inari Shrine

otogo no tsuitachi 乙子の朔日 (おとごのついたち) celebrating the youngest child
otogo no sekku 乙子の節句(おとごのせっく)
otogomochi otogo mochi 乙子餅 "mochi for the youngest child"
kawabitarimochi 川浸り餅(かわびたりもち)
mochi prepared on the day of kawabitari
kawabitari no tsuitachi 川浸りの朔日(かわびたりのついたち)
kawawatashi no tsuitachi 川渡しの朔日(かわわたしのついたち)


Roohachi-E 臘八会 Ceremony of Rohatsu
Shakyamuni Buddha (roohatsu)
..... roohachi, roohatsu 臘八(ろうはち)
..... Joodoo-E 成道会
roohachi sesshin 臘八接心(ろうはちせっしん)Rohatsu sesshin
roohachigayu 臘八粥(ろうはちがゆ)rice gruel served at Rohatsu sesshin
..... unzoogayu 温糟粥(うんぞうがゆ)
..... gomigayu 五味粥(ごみがゆ)
December 8 in Zen temples

Roojitsu 臘日 (ろうじつ) last day of the year
..... roosai 臘祭(ろうさい)festival on the last day of the year

Rotan o tatematsuru 炉炭を進る Imperial Ceremony , beginning to heat
..... rotan kai 煖炉会(だんろかい)


Saizoo ichi 才蔵市 (さいぞういち)
Market with Saizo singers from Mikawa

Sei Johanne no hi 聖ヨハネの日 (せいよはねのひ)
Day of Saint John the Apostle

..... Sei Johanne no iwaibi

seikazoku no hi 聖家族の日 (せいかぞくのひ)
Day of the Holy Family

Festival Day of the Holy Family from Nazareth

seitaisetsu 聖胎節 せいたいせつ
day of the Immaculate Conception (of Virgin Mary)

Maria no onyadori no hi

Sei Sabieru no hi 聖ザビエルの日 (せいざびえるのひ)
Day of Saint Xavier

Sei Furanshisuko Sabieru shi sai no iwaibi
Sabieru no iwaibi ザビエルの祝日(ざびえるのいわいび)
Sei Sabieru sai 聖ザビエル祭(せいざびえるさい)
Festival for Saint Xavier

Seishokusai 聖燭祭 (せいしょくさい) Candlemass
..... shu no hooken 主の奉献(しゅのほうけん)
Presentation of Jesus at the Temple / Groundhog Day

. . . . .

Setagaya boroichi 世田谷ぼろ市 flea market at Setagaya, Tokyo
..... boro-ichi ぼろ市(ぼろいち) flea market

Setsubun 節分 Setsubun Festival (February 3)
..... Tsuina 追儺 Driving away the evil influences
..... Nayarai なやらい、oni yarai 鬼やらい(おにやらい)
fukumame, fuku mame 福豆(ふくまめ)lucky beans
toshi otoko 年男(としおとこ)"man of the year"
oniuchimame, oni uchi mame 鬼打豆(おにうちまめ)
beans to throw at the demons
fuku wa uchi 福は内(ふくはうち)"Good luck, come in!"
oni wa soto 鬼は外(おにはそと)"Demons, go out! "
. . . mamemaki 豆まき, throwing beans and more kigo

Shichi Go San 七五三 Seven Five Three Celebration
..... Celebrating Shichi-Go-San, shime iwai 七五三祝
..... Seven-Five-Three congratulations
..... shichigosan no iwai 七五三の祝
...... sweets for this celebration, chitose ame 千歳飴 

Shinno Matsuri, Osaka 神農祭,小彦名神社, November 23
..... Shinnoo san 神農さん(しんのうさん)

Shiritsumi matsuri 尻摘祭 (しりつみまつり)
Festival of "touching the butt", "hip sumo"

Shooreisai 松例祭 (しょうれいさい)
Pine ceremony

toshiya matsuri 歳夜祭(としやまつり)year end festival
hyaku taimatsu no shinji 百松明の神事(ひゃくたいまつのしんじ)
ceremony of 100 pine torches

Susuharai 煤払 (すすはらい)
Cleaning the Dust and Dirt (of the old year)


Taikoosetsu 待降節 (たいこうせつ) advent

Tamashizume matsuri 鎮魂祭 (たましずめまつり)
ceremony of the pacification of the souls
..... chinkonsai, chinkon sai 鎮魂祭

Tennooji Doosojin Matsuri 天王寺道祖神祭 (てんのうじどうそじんまつり)
Wayside God Festival at Temple Tenno-Ji, Osaka
hagi matsuri 剥祭(はぎまつり)"left-out festival"
dorojijiri matsuri 泥くじり祭(どろくじりまつり)

Toganoo mushi kuyoo 栂尾虫供養 (とがのおむしくよ)
memorial service for the bugs at Toganoo
Temple Kozan-Ji and saint Myoe Shonin

Tookanya 十日夜 (とおかんや) night of the tenth  
Harvest Thanksgiving on the 10th day of the 10th lunar month

Toojigayu 冬至粥 Rice Gruel at the Winter Solstice
Pumpkin Soup at the Winter Solstice (tooji kabocha 冬至南瓜)

Tooji kitaru 杜氏来る (とうじきたる)
the sake brewers are coming

..... kurairi, kura iri 倉入り(くらいり)
"entering the storehouse"

Tooyama no shimotsuki matsuri 遠山の霜月祭
December Festival in Toyama, Nagano

shimotsuki matsuri 霜月祭(しもつきまつり)
Tooyama matsuri 、遠山祭(とおやままつり)
yudate kagura 湯立て神楽

Tori no Ichi 酉の市 Rooster Market
..... on the first day of the rooster in November
ichi no tori 一の酉(いちのとり)market on the first day of the rooster
tori no machi 酉の町(とりのまち)town with a market on the day of the rooster
tori no ichi moode 酉の町詣(とりのまちもうで) visiting the market at the day of the rooster
..... lucky-rake market, kumade ichi 熊手市
..... Okame-mask market, okame ichi おかめ市
..... too no imo 頭の芋(とうのいも)steamed taro

. . . . .

TOSHI 年 in Kigo for mid-winter refer to the old year which is coming to an end.

Toshikoshi no harae 年越の祓 (としこしのはらえ)
Purification rituals for passing into the New Year

Toshi mamoru 年守る (としまもる) seeing off the old year 
..... toshi okuru 年送る(としおくる)
..... shusai 守歳(しゅさい)
Toshi no hi 年の火 (としのひ) last fire of the year
. . . . . and
toshi no yado 年の宿 (としのやど)
lodgings for passing into the New Year
..... toshiyado 年宿(としやど)
toshi no ie 年の家(としのいえ) home for passing into the New Year

Toshi no ichi 年の市 Last Market of the Year
..... kure no ichi 暮の市(くれのいち) Year-end market
..... kure ichi 暮市(くれいち)
shiwasu no ichi 師走の市(しわすのいち) December market
saimatsu oo-uridash 歳末大売出し(さいまつおおうりだし)
Year-end sale
sekki ichi 節季市(せっきいち)seasonal market
kurisumasu oo-uridashi クリスマス大売出し
(くりすますおおうりだし) Christmas sale

Selling goods cheaply for the New Year Celebrations
. . . . . Daruma ichi 達磨市 (だるまいち) Daruma market at New Year

Toshi no yu 年の湯 (としのゆ) bath on the last day of the year
..... toshiyu 年湯(としゆ)
joya no yu 除夜の湯(じょやのゆ)bath on the last night

Toshi tori 年取 (としとり) "getting one year older"
..... toshi toru 年取る(としとる)

Toshi Yooi 年用意 Preparations for the New Year
..... toshi mooke 年設(としもうけ), toshi no mooke 年の設(としのもうけ)
toshi torimono 年取物(としとりもの)

. . . . .

Toyo no Akari no Sechi-E 豊明節会 Imperial Banquet with "Bountiful Light" and New Food
Toyo no akari 豊の明り(とよのあかり)、yuki no sechi 悠紀の節(ゆきのせち)、suki no sechi 主基の節(すきのせち)


Yakubarai 厄払 Casting off the Old Impurities and Sins
..... Yaku Otoshi 厄落し
yakumoode, yaku moode 厄詣(やくもうで)
visiting a shrine for purification rituals

Yakuzuka 厄塚 (やくづか) mound to ward off evil influence
erected in shrines

Yama no Kami Matsuri 山の神祭 (やまのかみまつり)
Festival for the God of the Mountains

yama no maki koo 山の神講(やまのかみこう)prayer group for the god of the mountain
..... yama no koo 山の講(やまのこう)
yama no ko matsuri 山の講祭(やまのこまつり)
festival of the prayer group for the god of the mountain

Yotsugi hota 世継榾 (よつぎほた) "successor firewood"
"log passing over" the Ney Year night

Yugyoo no Hitotsubi 遊行の一つ火 Memorial Service for Saint Yugyoo Shoonin, Ippen in Kamakura
..... Temple Yugyoo-Ji 遊行寺 and the The Willow of Yugyo

Yukiyama 雪山 (ゆきやま) "snow mountain"
..... yuki no yama 雪の山(ゆきのやま)
In memory of Mount Horai (Hooraisan 蓬莱山).

Yuzu yu 柚子湯( ゆずゆ) bath with yuzu citron
at the winter solstice


.. .. .. Memorial Days

Memorial Days of Famous People


.. .. .. Animals

Kankudori 寒苦鳥 Birds in the snowy mountains
Birds suffering in the cold

Festivals and Ceremonies, not as KIGO

Ae no koto, aenokoto あえのこと / 饗事
Entertaining the God of the Fields

Issa Festival at temple Entenji 炎天寺
November 23

Shimada ame matsuri 島田飴まつり 
Shimada Candy Festival

December 14, Yoshioka-Hachiman Shrine, Miyagi Prefecture.


Ceremonies in the New Year Saijiki

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