Showing posts with label Spring. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Spring. Show all posts

4/14/2011

Hiyoshi Shrine Festivals

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Hiyoshi Shrine Festivals

***** Location: Otsu
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Observance


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Explanation



Hiyoshi Shrine (日吉大社 Hiyoshi taisha),
also known as Hiyoshi jinja (日吉神社) or Hie jinja,
is a Shinto shrine located at 大津 Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture, Japan.

The shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers were sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihaku were initially presented to 16 shrines; and in 991, Emperor Ichijō added three more shrines to Murakami's list. Three years later in 994, Ichijō refined the scope of that composite list by adding Umenomiya Shrine and Gion Shrine, which is now known as Yasaka Jinja.

In 1039, Emperor Go-Suzaku ordered that one more shrine be added to the grouping created by Murakami and Ichijō -- the Hie jinja. This unique number of Imperial-designated shrines has not been altered since that time.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



Sanno, the "Mountain King"
A branch of Shinto that took shape in the Tendai sect, based on the cult of the Mountain King (Sannō) at the Hiyoshi Taisha (alt., Hie Taisha), tutelary shrine (chinjusha) for the temple Enryakuji. Its early modern doctrines that concern the shrine Tōshōgū are specially distinguished as Ichijitsu Shintō, the "Shinto of the Single Reality." The original Hie deity was the mountain kami on Mt. Hiei; interaction between it and the Tendai sect began with Saichō's founding of the Enryakuji.
The appellation "Mountain King" follows a general Buddhist practice of designating mountain deities as such ...
source : Sato Masato, Kokugakuin


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kigo for late spring

Sannoo matsuri 山王祭 (さんのうまつり) Sanno Festival

Sanno sai, San-O Festival

Hiyoshi matsuri 日吉祭(ひよしまつり) Hiyoshi festival

sakaki giri 榊伐(さかきぎり)cutting sakaki branches

sarumatsuri 申祭(さるまつり)monkey festival
saru no jinku 猿の神供(さるのじんく)ritual for the monkey

uma no shinji 午の神事(うまのしんじ) ritual for the horse
hitsuji no goku 未の御供(ひつじのごく)ritual for the sheep

April 14
At the Grand Hie (Hiyoshi) Shrine at Otsu

滋賀県大津市坂本町の日吉神社
It used to be on the middle day of the monkey (naka no saru 中の申) of the Asian lunar calendar, therefore it is also called "Monkey Festival".
It dates back to 1303.
The cutting of sacred sakaki branches happens on April 3.
On the "day of the horse" the mikoshi were carried to the mountain top at midnight.
An the 12th the mikoshi are pulled out in a nightly procession illuminated with large pine torches and on the main day 7 large mikoshi parade the streets.


. WKD : Sakaki tree (sakaki 榊) .

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There are three major festivals in Otsu:

Sanno Festival - April 12-15
Senko Festival - August 16
Otsu Festival - October 9-10

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. Hie Shrine Festival (Hie Jinja Sairei 日枝神社祭礼)
Sannoo matsuri 山王祭(さんのうまつり)Sanno festival
In Edo/Tokyo
kigo for mid-summer

The Hie Jinja Shrine (Tokyo) is dedicated to Sanno Gongen (山王権現), which translates literally as "Mountain King Avatar" of Sannoo, the deity who dwells on Mt. Hiei between Kyoto and Lake Biwa.

SANNO GONGEN 山王権現
SARUGAMI 猿神
Monkeys are patrons of harmonious marriage and safe childbirth at some of the 3,800 Hie Jinja shrines in Japan. ... The monkey is Sannou's Shinto messenger (tsukai 使い) and Buddhist avatar (gongen 権現).
Sarugami is the Shinto deity to whom the three monkeys (hear, speak, see no evil) are reportedly faithful.
source : Mark Schumacher


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quote
Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine [山王総本宮日吉大社]
Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine is the head shrine of approximately 3,800 Hiyoshi, Hie and Sanno shrines throughout Japan.

The history of Hiyoshi Taisha is long. It is recorded in "Kojiki," the oldest historiography in Japan written in 712. Its vast premises (about 430,000 m2) of this shrine are laid at the foot of Mt. Hachioji, east side of Mt. Hiei.
The shrine is comprised of two zones, Higashi Hongu (West main shrine) and Nishi Hongu (East main shrine), with many smaller shrines in the area.

In the Muromachi Period, the heyday of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine, 108 shrines were located on its grounds and another 108 shrines outside the shrine premises.

Among many shrine buildings, main halls of Higashi Hongu (West main shrine) and Nishi Hongu (East main shrine) are designated as national treasures. Also, many structures of this shrine are recognized as important cultural assets of Japan including worship halls of the both Higashi Hongu and Nishi Hongu, Nishi Hongu Ro-mon Gate, the red two-storied gate with the carving of a monkey, and Sanno-torii Gate.

Spectacular shrine pavilions of architectural beauty, which were built in the Muromachi Period and the beginning of Edo Period, are scattered in the deep forest Mt. Hachioji and along the torrents of the Omiya River. The beauty of the autumn leaves in Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine is renowned. The premises are illuminated at night during the autumn season. In springtime many kinds of cherry blossoms fill the prefectural road from Keihan Railway Sakamoto Station to the entrance of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine.
Also, Sanno Festival, the festival of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine, is held in spring every year.
source : www.japan-i.jp


- quote
かつては境内108社・境外108社と言われていた。
以下に示す21社は主なものであり、山王二十一社と総称される
(Now there are 21 shrines in the compound
- one of them is dedicated to Fudo Myo-O
摂社
- shrine name - 早尾神社 Hayao Jinja
- Deity in residence - 素盞嗚神 - Susanoo no Mikoto
Old naming 早尾 -- 不動明王
- source : ja.wikipedia.org




This is a namikiri Fudo 波切不動明王.
- no photo fount yet -




There is also a
Yamakami Fudo Son 山上不動尊

in the compound, where a large sugi cedar with a shimenawa is celebrated.


Every month on the 28 fire rituals for Fudo Myo-O are held.
滋賀県大津市山上町
source : tanuki838.web.fc2.com/Taki


. Fudō Myō-ō, Fudoo Myoo-Oo 不動明王 Fudo Myo-O
Acala Vidyârâja - Vidyaraja - Fudo Myoo .




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quote
Sannō Shinkō - Sanno Shinko
The cult that began at Hiyoshi Taisha (Hiesha) at the foot of Mount Hiei. Originally, Sannō was the "mountain kami" (yama no kami) of Mount Hiei, but came to be worshipped as the protective kami of the Tendai (Chi. T'ient'ai) sect and of the temple Enryakuji. After the mid-Heian Period, when the temple Enryakuji developed as a kenmon (central land-owning institution) temple complex, imperial court devotion to Hiesha increased.

Courts such as that of Enyū emperor (reigned 969 ~ 984) conducted occasional festivals there and finally recognized Hieisha as one of the "Twenty-two Shrines" (nijūnisha). Moreover, from the end of the Heian Period through the medieval period, Hieisha became as popular as "Kumano's Three Peaks" (Kumano sanzan) as a pilgrimage site (sankei) among everyone from emperors and retired emperors to aristocrats and commoners.

At the beginning of the medieval period, along with the popularity of belief in "child deities" (dōji) and "offspring shrines" (wakamiya), the popularity of Jūzenji shrine (currently called Jugegū – one of Sannō's seven main shrines) surpassed that of Hieisha's Ōmiya shrine in which Hiesha's principle "enshrined kami" (saijin) is worshipped.

As the protective deity of Tendai temples and of Enryakuji or Hiesha's land holdings, Sannō "emanations" became worshipped (bunshi) throughout Japan resulting in the further spread of the cult of Sannō.

Because Hiesha is located to the northeast of Kyōto, it became regarded as a guardian against the evil spirits entering the capital from "demon gate" (kimono) northeastern direction, and as a result sacred images (shinzō) of divine monkeys believed to be Sannō's "divine messengers" (shinshi) were enshrined in the northeastern corner of the Heian imperial palace.
source : Sato Masato
Kokugakuin University 2007


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quote
Numazu Hie-jinja 沼津 日枝神社 Hie Shrine in Numazu
Hie Shrine in Numazu City, Shizuoka Prefecture, had been the head guardian shrine of 22 villages in the area before the Meiji period (1868-1912). The enshrined deities are Ooyamakui no Kami The guardian god of Mt. Hiei), Oomunachi no Kami and Ootoshigami. It is said that the shrine was founded by Fujiwara no Moromichi’s mother in 1100 in the clan’s manor, which was called “Ooka-sho” at that time.

Fujiwara no Moromichi was a head of the Fujiwara clan and served as Kampaku and Udaijin. Having come into colligion with the Tendai monks in Mt. Hiei, he ordered to attack them in 1095. As some monks were wounded in the battle and this aroused anger of the monks, he was placed a curse and died young in 1099. Thus his mother transferred the three dieties of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine in Mt. Hiei to appease the anger of the deities of Mt. Hiei.

Traditionally, the school of Shinto which believes in the guardian deity of Mt. Hiei is called the Sanno (the King of Mountain) Shinto; hereby this shrine is also called “Sanno-sha”. The annual festival held for two days from September 23 every year is popularly called “Sanno-san” by the local people and enjoyed as the representative event of the city that tells of the coming of autumn.

The shrine is also famous for the collection of important old documents including Sanno Reikenki in Shihon-Chakushoku style (paper-based colored), which is a nationally designated Important Cultural Property.
In the precinct is a stone monument inscribed with a poem by Matsuo Basho.
source : nippon-kichi.jp




都出て神も旅寝の日数哉
miyako idete kami mo tabine no hikazu kana

I left the capital
and shared many nights on the road
with the gods


Matsuo Basho, 1691

Basho had left Kyoto late in the 10th lunar month and arrived in Numazu on his way to Edo early in the 11th lunar month, just when the gods are absentin Izumo and might have been on their way home too.

. WKD : Gods are absent (kami no rusu) .

. Numazu-juku 沼津宿 Numazu postal station .


MORE - hokku about Kyoto
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



. Sumiyoshi Grand Shrine
(住吉大社, Sumiyoshi-taisha)



The shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers were sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan. These heihaku were initially presented to 16 shrines including the Sumiyoshi Shrine.

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Monkey Amulet from Hiyoshi Shrine


Click for more images!

saru monkey - a pun on the sound of SARU

ma ga saru 魔が去る evil is leaving
ma saru 魔去る evil is leaving
masaru 勝る winning


神猿 Masaru


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O-Saru Sama お猿様 Honoarble Mister Monkey

Monkey amulets from shrine Hagi Hiyoshi Jinja in Saitama.
萩日吉神社

They are simple wooden dolls with simple monkey faces.
The wood is taken from the trees in the temple ground, a kind of willow, doro no ki 泥の木/白楊 (doro yanagi).
People used to stick one needle into the monkey, at the part they were acheing themselves, or when the children got a stomach ache or other complaint, and hoped for the deity to cure their disease. (byooki sa saru - may the disease go away). They put the monkey on their shelf for the gods and prayed to it.
The monkey would then take on the disease and heal it, as a kind of migawari, personal substitute .

When the person gets better people would bring the monkey back in an act of gratitude (osame no saru 納めの猿).

They are sold on the special market during the festival on the third sunday in January.
At this shrine, there is also a yabusame festival, shooting arrows from horseback, once in three years.


. Saru 申 / 猿 Monkey Amulets .

. Migawari - personal substitute amulets .


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HAIKU




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Related words

***** . Gion Festival (Gion matsuri 祇園祭り)

***** . Shrine Karasaki Jinja 唐崎神社 .
and the Hiyoshi shrine in Otsu


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2/14/2011

Degawari for servants

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Migrating servants (degawari)

***** Location: Japan
***** Season: Mid-spring and mid-autumn
***** Category: Observance


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Explanation

After the New Year ceremonies, the old servants were replaced by younger ones.
The old ones had to leave their employers and return to their home villages.
The young ones traveled toward the nearby towns to find employment.

CLICK for more photos

degawari 出代 (でがわり) migrating of the servants
exchange of the servants
..... 出替(でがわり)
igasane 居重ね(いがさね)、inari 居なり(いなり) staying as a servant
shinzan 新参(しんざん)newcomer, new hand
gozan 古参(こさん)an old-timer, senior servant
choonen 重年((ちょうねん)senior staff

o-memie 御目見得(おめみえ) probation time of the new servants


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kigo for mid-autumn

nochi no degawari 後の出代 (のちのでがわり)
migrating of the servants in autumn

.... aki no degawari 秋の出代(あきのでがわり)


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not kigo
People from the countryside went to the towns to make a bit of money during the slow seasons.


degawari is short for 出替り奉公人
servants employed for a short time, less than one year
degawari hookoonin

zue, hanki-i 半季居(ずえ) for half a season
ikki-i hookoo 一季居奉公 for one season

fudai hookoo 譜代(ふだい)奉公 servants for a longer time
nenkiri hookoo 年切(ねんきり))奉公 servants for one year

shiyoonin 使用人 servant

bukebookoo 武家奉公 servant of a samurai
dechibookoo, detchibookoo 丁稚(でっち)奉公 servant of a merchant

kogai 子飼(こがい) child in employment

nenkibookoo 年季奉公 servant for a special time,
where his owner (parents) got money

degawari was often done by the oldest son or daughter of a family to learn something in Edo or a nearby town.

Later they were called

wakatoo 若党(わかとう)
chuugen 中間(ちゅうげん)
komono 小者(こもの)
zooritori 草履取(ぞうりとり)(keeper of the straw sandals of his master)

The story of young Hideyoshi, who kept the sandals warm in his busom pocket for the lord Nobunaga and later made a career as the shoogun of Japan is quite well known.


bantoo 番頭 head clerk
at a mercantile establishment
He was the leader of all the servants in a merchant home and had to take all the responsibility of a manager, doing the bookkeeping as well.
In Samurai estates, he was also called bangashira.
If there were more than one bantoo in a store, one was the "Big bantoo" oobantoo 大番頭. He also worked as a leader for the neighbourhood security forces.


hyakunin bantoo 百人番頭 "bantoo leading 100 servants"



. yakko 奴 simple workers in a daimyo estate
yakko shoogatsu 奴正月(やっこしょうがつ)
New Year holiday for the yakko servants
kigo for the New Year




ashigaru 足軽 (あしがる) "light on the feet"
lightly armed warrior-servants
They had to carry the spears, bows and arrows and other weapons.
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


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ashigaru bentoo 足軽弁当 lunch for an ashigaru
. . . CLICK here for Photos !


"dechi yookan, detchi yookan 丁稚ようかん (でっちようかん)" "jelly for servants"
from Fukui prefecture


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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way





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HAIKU


Some haiku by Kobayashi Issa
(Tr. David Lanoue)


出代の市にさらすや五十顔
degawari no ichi ni sarasu ya gojuu kao

a laid-off servant at market--
his fifty year-old face
exposed



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haiga by Nakamura Sakuo


出代や江戸の見物もしなの笠
degawari ya edo no kembutsu mo shinano-gasa

migrating servants -
in Edo, too
Shinano's umbrella-hats


Issa's home province was Shinano.




大原に出代駕の通りけり
oohara ni degawari kago no toori keri

across the wide plain
a migrating servant
in a palanquin



Palanquin, sedan chair (kago 篭 or かご)




門雀なくやいつ迄出代ると
kado suzume naku ya itsu made degawaru to

gate's sparrow singing--
until when
a migrating servant?



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出代や六十顔をさげながら
degawari ya rokujuu-zura o sagenagara

looks sixty
but proud of his latest
temporary job

Tr. Chris Drake


This hokku is from Issa's own handwritten collection of his hokku that contains hokku from many years. It must be a spring hokku, since the shogunate mandated that job changes for one-year temporary workers should take place in the third month (April) and for six-month temporary workers in the third and ninth months (April, October), and only the spring and summer sections of Issa's handwritten collection remain. There were many kinds of medium-length temporary work, with the two most common being a worker in a wholesale or retail business or a low-ranking live-in household servant. The pay was very low, though living costs were covered, and in businesses there was the possibility of promotion to a semi-permanent or permanent position. Since there was a constant influx of people from poor farming areas into the city of Edo looking for work, wages stayed low, and usually those who did find work either remained for several years in order to save up a little money before they returned to their hometowns or became Edoites and settled in the big city.

The man in Issa's hokku seems to be a migrant who has settled down and is now an Edo resident. For many years he's been working for one employer after another, changing either once or twice a year. He's never been able to find a permanent job, and he seems to have no special skill to sell, yet he is content to keep on changing and accepting pitiful wages the way a desperate young man would. To many people he appears shameless and thick-faced, since at sixty he should be dignified or at least above doing unskilled manual labor, but the man has learned not to be bothered by the negative opinions of others. Apparently his sixtyish face even looks a bit happy or at least relieved at finding a new job as an odd jobs man or a servant, though his nonchalance and lack of concern for social status make some people feel uneasy.

Issa himself was sent to Edo at fourteen by his father, presumably to become an apprentice or servant for several years, and he knew how hard and unrewarding such work was. For example, there were only two regular one-day vacations a year, around New Year's and during the early fall O-Bon festival of returning souls. In this 1822 hokku Issa evokes someone who wishes he (or she) could enjoy life in Edo a little bit:

de-gawari ya edo kembutsu mo shinano-gasa

changing jobs again --
he wears a country hat
but can't see the sights


The broad-rimmed rush or straw hat of the part-time worker from the country is actually a "Shinano hat," since the man is from Issa's home province. Unlike short-time visitors to Edo from Shinano and other rural areas, this part-time worker has no time to see the sights of the city, many of which are especially beautiful in the third month, when the cherries and other trees and plants are in bloom. As soon as his contract is up at one place, he must go to the temporary-job market and hustle to find a new employer. The man lives in Edo, yet he knows little more than the insides of the houses or shops in which he's lived and worked. And he can't even afford a stylish new hat of the type popular in Edo. Surely Issa marvels at the persistence and endurance (and cheerfulness?) shown by a man who continues to do this hard, demanding work past sixty, something he couldn't do himself. Luckily he discovered haikai instead.

Chris Drake

. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


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Related words

***** yabuiri, yabu iri, yabu-iri 薮入 servant's holiday
Sainichi 斎日, さいにち Fasting day, sixteenth day
kigo for the NEW YEAR



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kigo for early autumn

***** nochi no yabuiri 後の薮入 (のちのやぶいり)
"next holiday for the servants"

aki no yabu-iri 秋の薮入(あきのやぶいり)
servant holidays in autumn

It used to be the 16th day of the 7th lunar month, related to Tanabata and O-Bon.

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8/15/2010

Governor promotion (tsukasameshi)

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Governor promotion

***** Location:
***** Season: Spring and Mid-Autumn
***** Category: Observance


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Explanation


kigo for the New Year / Spring

agatameshi no jimoku 県召除目 (あがためしのじもく)
Giving first orders to local governors

..... 県召の除目
..... agatameshi 県召(あがためし)
..... haru no jimoku 春除目(はるのじもく)governor promotion in spring

Usually from the 11 to the 13th day of the first lunar month.

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kigo for mid-autumn

tukasameshi 司召 (つかさめし)
governor promotion (in autumn)

aki no jimoku 秋の除目(あきのじもく) governor promotion in autumn
kyookan jimoku 京官除目(きょうかんじもく)governor promotion in Kyoto


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At the imperial court of the Heian period, new orders of appointment for governors to the provinces were given twice a year, at New Year (spring in the lunar calendar) and autumn.
The Minister of the Left (Sadaijin 左大臣) was responsible for these appointment ceremonies.

It was quite an honor for an official to be appointed governor of a province, even if it was far away from the capital of Kyoto.



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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



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HAIKU


CLICK for more photos

拝すとて烏帽子落すな司めし
haisu tote eboshi otosu na tsukasa meshi

at the audience
don't drop your official hat -
governor's promotion


Tan Taigi 炭太祇 (たんたいぎ)


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司召家庭のおしいかほりけり  
tsukasameshi katei no oshii kahori keri

Koshu 古洲

source : satoyamanokai.blog


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Related words


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10/22/2009

Ise Shrine and its KIGO

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. Ise-Shima 伊勢志摩 と伝説 Legends about Ise-Shima .
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Ise Shrine and its KIGO

***** Location: Ise, Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Observance


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Explanation


Ise Grand Shrine (伊勢神宮, Ise Jingū) is a Shinto shrine dedicated to goddess Amaterasu-ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. Officially known simply as Jingū (神宮), Ise Jingū is in fact a shrine complex composed of a large number of Shinto shrines centered on two main shrines, Naikū (内宮) and Gekū (外宮).
CLICK for more photos

Purportedly the home of the Sacred Mirror, the shrine is arguably one of Shinto's holiest and most important sites.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


shinbyoo 神廟 Shinbyo, "a sacred place for the deity". another name for the Ise Jingu Shrine.
Also used for other great shrines or shrines that hold the remains of a dead deified person, for example Tokugawa Ieyasu.


The Grand Shrine at Ise is closely related to the rice culture of Japan, with its own rice fields for ritual purposes and a "sacred dining hall" for the deities.

. The Japanese Rice Culture and Ise Shrine .
Shinguu shinden 新宮神田 Shingu rice fields for the deities (at Shingu shrine)
mikeden 御鐉殿 "the sacred dining hall"

. shinden 神田 / saiden 斎田 rice paddies for rituals .


source : Ise Jingu - Shingu shrine


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Reiheishi れいへいし【例幣使】

An envoy who was sent from the Imperial court to the Grand Shrines of Ise (Ise Jingū) to present offerings (hōbei 奉幣) for the Kannamesai.
Also referred as Ise no reiheishi. A reiheishi was one type of royal "messenger" (hōbeishi) who brought offerings to shrines. From the medieval period onwards, the presentation of offerings for the Kannamesai was referred to as reihei (regular offerings), and thus the envoy was called a reiheishi.

It was customary to dispatch the messenger on the eleventh day of the ninth month. The chief messenger was selected by divination from amongst the Ō clan. Officials of the Jingikan (Department of Divinities) surnamed Nakatomi, Inbe, or Urabe accompanied him. The first recorded reiheshi was sent in 721.

The practice was discontinued after the Ōnin Disturbance (1467-77), but was revived in 1647 in the Edo Period. However, prior to this (in 1646) the Nikkō reiheishi was initiated. This was a practice in which the court sent messengers to the "main ceremony" (reisai) held at the Tōshōgū in Nikkō where Tokugawa Ieyasu was enshrined. During the Edo period, this latter reiheishi was better known, and thus in contemporary documents the word reiheishi usually implies Nikkō reiheishi.

Offerings of heihaku made to shrines and imperial tombs by order of the Emperor. The term also refers to an envoy who bore these offerings, (alternatively called the hōbeishi). The characters can also be read as hōhei.
The hōbei usually accompanied an imperial message (senmyō) but the paper used for the message differed according to the shrine: for example, the paper used for The Grand Shrines of Ise was a deep blue (hanada-iro), and that for Kamo Shrine was crimson (kurenai-iro), while for other shrines, yellow paper was used.

After the Ōnin War (1467-1477) they ceased entirely, except for the offerings sent to the Grand Shrines of Ise.
Currently hōbei are sent to Ise Shrine and the other venues of imperial rites known as chokusaisha and also to imperial mausolea for Shikinensai memorial rites. Envoys who carry offerings from the Association of Shintō Shrines (Jinjahonchō) to various shrines are currently called kenpeishi.
source : Inoue Nobutaka . Kokugakuin University.

kigo see below

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Kan'namesai かんなめさい【神嘗祭】

. . . CLICK here for Photos !

A rite at the Ise Shrines celebrating the imperial lineage’s divine ancestry by offering first fruits to Amaterasu Ōmikami on the seventeenth day of the tenth month; the harvest festival of those shrines.

the emperor was to dispatch the imperial ritualist (hōbeishi) on the eleventh day of the ninth lunar month to perform the offering in the Daigokuden (which was known as the Koyasumidono in ancient times). The term reihei, referring to the imperial tribute offered in this ritual, first appears in the fifth year of the Yōrō era (721).

on the seventeenth day of the ninth month, within the palace the formal rite (haishiki) was to be performed at Kōtai Jingū and the “distant rite” (yōhai) was to be performed at upper and middle palaces by the one-hundred ministers of the court. This proclamation rested on the view that, in rites for the imperial ancestors, the Kashikodokoro (because it enshrines the yata no kagami, or sacred imperial mirror) was spiritually linked to the Ise Shrines; and thus the Kashikodokoro was regarded as a substitute (godaigū) for the Ise Shrines within the palace. Thus, on the day of the kannamesai festival, both “worship from afar” and direct worship of the imperial ancestors by the emperor himself (shinsai) were performed within the imperial palace.

With the change to the solar calendar, the seventeenth of the ninth month fell at a time when the harvest had not yet ripened, so in 1878 the ritual was moved to October.

source : Nakanishi Masayuki . Kokugakuin University.


shintōistisches Erntedankfest

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kigo for all spring




. Ise Mairi 伊勢参り Ise Shrine Pilgrimage
Ise sanguu 伊勢参宮(いせさんぐう)
O-kage mairi お陰参り (おかげまいり)"Thanks pilgrimage" or "blessing pilgrimage"
nuke mairi 抜参(ぬけまいり)leaving secretly and beg your way to Ise
saka mukae 坂迎え(さかむかえ)
isekoo 伊勢講(いせこう)Ise Shrine Group
daidai koo 太々講(だいだいこう)... see below for Kagura dance


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kigo for early summer


CLICK for more photos

Ise kanmiso no matsuri
伊勢神御衣祭 いせかんみそのまつり
jinngunkanmisosai 神宮神御衣祭(じんぐんかんみそさい)
miso no matsuri 御衣祭(みそのまつり)
kanso matsuri 神衣祭(かんそまつり)

offerings of summer garments
to the deities at Ise shrine

. . . CLICK here for Photos !

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CLICK for more photos

Ise no o-taue 伊勢の御田植 (いせのおたうえ)
planting rice at Ise

mitamatsuri 御田祭(みたまつり)
"festival of the honorable rice fields"
... omitamatsuri, o-mita matsuri お御田祭(おみたまつり)
Yamada no o-taue 山田の御田植(やまだのおたうえ)
planting rice at Yamada
otaue ogi 御田扇(おたおうぎ) fan for the planting rice ceremony

Before the official rice planting at the small town of Yamada, offerings of rice, fish and fruit are made to the deities. Then the priests and shrine maidens plant the rice which will be harvested by them in autumn and then used for the offerings at the shrine.

Used to be on May 20, but now a sunday close do this date.
In the village of Isobe, it is done on June 24.



When the planting is over, two priest with large fans perform a dance along the path between the rice paddies.

Performed at the Izo no Miya, see below.

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kigo for mid-autumn




Ise gosenguu 伊勢御遷宮 (いせごせんぐう)
transposition of the shrine's sanctuary

. . . . . gosenguu 御遷宮(ごせんぐう)Gosengu Ceremony

This takes plase every 20 years, started more than 1300 years ago.
The shrine buildings at the Naiku and Geku, as well as the Uji Bridge, are rebuilt every 20 years. This is part of the Shinto belief of the death and renewal of nature and the impermanence of all things (wabi-sabi). It is also an opportunity to pass on building techniques from one generation to the next.
The next rebuilding of Ise Shrine is due in 2013.


tootosa ni mina oshi-ainu gosenguu

For holiness,
Everyone has pushed others in the crowd.
The Shrine Removal !

Tr. Oseko


Discussion and more Haiku about Holiness by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .



MORE - hokku about visiting the Ise Shrine
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .



The 62nd Jingu Shikinen Sengu in 2013 伊勢式年遷宮
- - - Details
. WKD : Jingu Shikinen Sengu in 2013 .


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kigo for late autumn

reihei 例幣 (れいへい) imperial envoy
Ise Hoohei 伊勢奉幣(いせほうへい) Imperial Envoy to Ise

kanname no matsuri 神嘗祭 (かんなめのまつり)
kannamesai 晩秋 神嘗祭(かんなめさい)
shinjoosai 神嘗祭(しんじょうさい)

. Kurama no hi matsuri 鞍馬の火祭 Kurama Fire Festival
also called kanname sai 神嘗祭
October 22

explanation see above

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kigo for mid-winter

Daijinguu fuda kubari
大神宮札配 (だいじんぐうふだくばり)
presenting amulets from Daijingu



From the shrine Koo Daijingu 皇大神宮 amulets 大麻(taima)(お札) are presented to the other Ise shrines in Japan.
The head priest of each shrine will then give them to the parishioner families.
In olden times, priests would walk all the way throughout Japan.



kigo for late winter

Saiguu no ema 斎宮絵馬 (さいぐうのえま)
votiv tablets from Saigu
Itsuki no miya no ema 斎宮絵馬(いつきのみやのえま)

At the Emado hall of votive tablets at the Saigu Shrine in Mie, 多気郡明和町, this ritual is held at the last day of the year of the lunar calendar.
The old ema are replaced and the good or bad luck for the coming year is foretold.



Ise saiguu 伊勢斎宮
This shrine is about 20 km away from the main Ise shrine.

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observance kigo for the New Year

. Hatsu Ise 初伊勢 First visit to the Ise Shrine  





chakkirako ちゃっきらこ / チャッキラコ Chakirako dance festival
hatsu Ise odori 初伊勢踊 first Ise dance
hiyari odori 日やり踊
sagichoo odori 左義長踊 Sagicho Dance

At the shrine Kainan Jinja 海南神社 in Miura Peninsula Kanagawa.
On January 15.
The women come together, sing and dance.
They make a sound with special bamboo tools (ayadake 綾竹) which sounds like
chakkirako .


. sagichoo 左義長 Sagicho fire and dance .


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伊勢大神楽 Ise-ookagura Ise Ookagura

Ise Ookagura is a theatrical dance in the Shinto religion. The dance troupes traveled around remote areas for those who could not visit and worship at the Ise Shrine. The history of Ise Ookagura dates back more than 600 years.
The performance is composed of two elements: “dance” from shishi-mai lion dance and “music” called houkagei, which later became known as Daidougei or street performance.

Ise Ookagura starts with a slow and elegant bell dance, followed by the Shiguruma Dance and the humorous Leap Dance, in which Sarutahiko (a monkey boy) jumps around a sleeping shishi lion.
The houkagei music performance has a wide repertory, including the Music of Ayatori (“cat’s cradle”) in which performers manipulate wooden poles freely and the Music of Plates, in which performers do dish-spinning tricks with long poles, to pray for a rich harvest. Between the performances, houkagei performers and a clown act comically together. The performance then finishes with Rankyoku music.

Ise Ookagura was designated an Important Intangible Cultural Asset by the Japanese government in 1983. Ise Ookagura, which originally started with 12 troupes, is still preserved by a handful of troupes that travel around Japan to pass down their historical culture to future generations.
source : nippon-kichi.jp




Ise Daikagura

Ise Daidai Kagura 伊勢 大々神楽 (だいだいかぐら)

. WKD : Ise Kagura


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Ise Ondo 伊勢温度 Ise Song and Dance


Ryuryukyo Shinsai (1764 – 1820)

This is one of the most famous folk songs and dances. It spread over most of Japan because the Ise Pilgrims have been singing it.

- quote -
Ise Ondo Koi no Netaba 伊勢音頭恋寝刃
The Ise Dances and Love's Dull Blade

The drama "Ise Ondo Koi no Netaba" was premiered in the 7th lunar month of 1796 in Ôsaka, produced at the Kado no Shibai by the zamoto Fujikawa Hachizô III].

The play is loosely based on a real killing spree which took place in Furuichi (aburaya Sôdô), and which caused a sensation, about two months before the play's premiere in the 7th lunar month of 1796. The murders that inspired it having taken place in summer, "Ise Ondo" is a "summer play", with characters wearing light cotton yukata and using fans, and the Aburaya House of Pleasure's curtains being decorated with patterns of flowing water and floating bowls.
- Full text of all scenes :
Scenes no longer normally staged
Penultimate scene of Act I: by a jizô statue in a field
Last scene of Act I: Futami-ga-Ura
Final scene of Act II (which is not normally performed): within the precincts of the Ise Shrine
Act III, Scene 1: a room in the Aburaya House of Pleasure in Furuichi
Act III, Scene 2: in inner courtyard at the Aburaya
Act IV - versions
- source : kabuki21.com -


CLICK for more kabuki photos !


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

A legend from Nara, 橿原市 Kashihara town
A man named 惣五郎 Sogoro once finished planting a large rice field, when he found a young fox dead by the field side. So he burried the poor animal and said prayers for its soul.
At night he heard voices of five or six people at the door, calling out:
"Hey you rice-planter Sogoro, we pulled them all out!"
It must have been the parents of the young fox, who by mistake thought he had killed their child.
Sogoro took pity on them too, sat by the field and explained the events again and again.
That night he heard the voices again, singing the Ise Ondo and then telling him:
"Sorry we pulled your plants out! But now, they are all replanted!"
Next morning he found some 鏡餅 offerings in front of his door and all the fields were planted as before.

- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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Izoo no Miya 伊雜宮 Izo no Miya
伊雜宮
Izawa no Miya 伊雑宮(いざわのみや)Izooguu いぞうぐう
磯部の宮、磯部の大神宮さん
This is a separate shrine within the Ise compound, where the Taue field-planting takes place.



葉月潮 伊雑の宮を さしてゆく
hazukijio Izoo no miya o sashite yuku

The tides of August
coming on a pilgrimage
to the Izoo Shrine.


. Yamaguchi Seishi 山口誓子 .
Composed 1976.
In August the great tides of the Pacific Ocean roll into Matoya Bay and, after passing through a narrow strait, enter the Izoo Lagoon. A god is enshrined at the Izoo Shrine there, and the great tides come all that way to worship the god.
Tr. Kodaira & Marks

There is now a beautiful red bridge over Matoya Bay 的矢湾大橋 and a memorial stone with this haiku by Seishi.
source : www.kanko-shima.com


. WKD : hazuki 葉月 (はづき) leaf month, .



source : facebook

太一は天の中心に位置する北極神と解され、天皇大帝や昊天上帝といった至高神と同定されることもあった。
大団扇(おおうちわ)の「太一」
大団扇が立てられている右方向に伊雑宮の森があり、絵の船はお宮に向って進んでいるように描かれています。

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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



. WASHOKU
Ise udon 伊勢うどん served at the shrine Ise Jingu
 



awabimeshi, awabi-meshi あわびめし rice with abalone
Ise ebi 伊勢エビ料理 lobster from Ise
Ise takuan 伊勢たくあん pickles radish from Ise
Itoin Senbei, ito-in senbei 絲印煎餅 Senbei with a "stamp like a thread"
Manjuu kaidoo 饅頭街道 Manju Road
. WASHOKU
Local Dishes from Mie 三重県の郷土料理
 


. Toyouke Oomikami 豊受大神 (とようけおおみかみ) .
Toyouke Omikami, Toyoukehime no Kami
The goddess of agriculture and industry in the Shinto religion.
Worshipped at the Lower Shrine, Gegu 下宮 in Ise.
She offers food to Amaterasu.
and
an explanation about the chigi 千木 "1000 roof beams" of a Shinto shrine.


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. Eto 干支  Zodiac Animal Amulets .


. shinkei 神鶏土鈴 sacred rooster clay bells
from the Great Ise Shrine


. Folk Toys from Mie .


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HAIKU



gekuu, gekū 外宮 outer shrine complex of Ise
naikuu, naikū 内宮 inner shrine complex of Ise
伊勢神宮 Ise Jingu, Ise Grand Shrine
. WKD : Ise - Geku and Naiku - and HAIKU .

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春めくや人さまざまの伊勢まいり
haru meku ya hito samazama no Ise mairi

spring in full swing -
everyone has his own way
of visiting the Ise shrine

Yamamoto Kakei 山本荷兮
慶安元年(1648)~享保元年(1716)
doctor from Nagoya
From the Poem Collection "Days of spring" 春の日.


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. WKD : Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 .


おのづから頭が下る也神ぢ山
onozukara zu ga sagaru nari Kamiji yama

by itself
my head bows...
Mount Kamiji

Tr. David Lanoue

A hill dedicated to the sun goddess Amateru, Mount Kamiji is located in a garden in the inner precincts of Ise shrine. Since Issa composed the poem in First Month in Shinano Province, 300 kilometers north of Ise shrine, he must have relied on memory and imagination when composing this haiku.

Issa bows to the sacred hill. More accurately, "the head, by itself" is bowing without conscious intention on the part of the poet. For this reason, I first translated zu ga sagaru literally as "the head bows," rather than "my head bows." However, in a note on a similar haiku in which a head "by itself bows," Shinji Ogawa writes that first person, "my head," preserves the poem's intensity in English.
David Lanoue



Kamijiyama 神路山 Mount Kamijiyama, about 400 m high



神垣や白い花には白い蝶
kamigaki ya shiroi hana ni wa shiroi choo

fence of the Gods -
a white butterfly
on a white flower

Tr. Gabi Greve
inverting lines 2 and 3 for more fluent English




. kamigaki 神垣 the "Fence of the Gods" to the inner shrine .


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Related words

. 'O-Ise-san in Tokyo' - 東京大神宮 Tokyo Daijingu .


BACK : Top of this Saijiki

. Ise-Shima 伊勢志摩 と伝説 Legends about Ise-Shima .

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[ . BACK to DARUMA MUSEUM TOP . ]
[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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3/13/2008

Kasuga Shrine Festivals

[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO TOP . ]
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Kasuga Shrine Festivals

***** Location: Kasuga Shrine, Japan
***** Season: Various, see below
***** Category: Observance


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Explanation

CLICK for more photos CLICK for more English Information !

The Kasuga Shrine (春日大社, Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. Established in 768 A.D. and rebuilt several times over the centuries, it is the shrine of the Fujiwara family. The interior is famous for its many bronze lanterns, as well as the many stone lanterns that lead up the shrine.

The architectural style Taisha-zukuri takes its name from the Kasuga Shrine.

Kasuga Shrine, and the Kasugayama Primeval Forest near the shrine, are registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara".

The enchanting path to Kasuga Shrine passes through Deer Park (where tame deer roam free). Over a thousand stone lanterns line the way.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Kasuga jinja 春日神社 Kasuga Shrine is the shrine name.


taisha-zukuri 大社造
Also called ooyashiro-zukuri. The oldest style of shrine architecture.
Read more here: © JAANUS



Kasuga Taisha Japanese HP

Kasuga Wakamiya Festival. Japanese HP


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The five deities of the five important shrines

Takemikazuchi no Mikoto / Fuku Kenjaku Kannon

Futsunushi no Mikoto / Yakushi Nyorai

Ame no Koyane no Mikoto / Jiso Bosatsu

Himegami / 11-Headed Kannon Bosatsu

Wakamiya- / Monju Manjushri Bosatsu


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Kasuga Lantern Festival in Spring
setsubun mantooroo 節分万灯籠, 万中元万燈籠
Februar 3
Kasuga no mantoo 春日の万燈(かすがのまんとう)
(The kigo is for the winter festival.)

CLICK for more English information CLICK for more Japanese photos



This festival takes place at the Great Shrine at Kasuga, Kasuga Taisha 春日大社.
More than 3000 lanterns are lit up in the cold winter night. The stone lanterns have been dedicated by some Daimyo of the Edo period and many more by the lay people who come visit this shrine. There are also many bronze lanterns hanging from the eaves.

This ceremony is more than 800 years old.

Reference : Kasuga Lantern Festival



O-Bon Lantern Festival, Obon Mantoro
(Obon Mantooroo) お盆万燈籠 

During the O-Bon festival, the lanterns are lit again.
August 14

O-bon, a kigo for haiku



Kasuga Lantern Festival in Winter, Kasuga Mantooroo
春日万燈籠 (かすがまんとうろう). 春日万灯籠
kigo for mid-winter
..... Kasuga no mantoo 春日の万燈(かすがのまんとう)
Taisha Mandoro (Taisha Mandooroo)


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Kasuga Spring Festival, Kasuga Festival
kigo for mid-spring
March 13

Kasuga Matsuri 春日祭 (かすがまつり)
"Kasuga Monkey Festival" saru matsuri 申祭(さるまつり)

The shrine was build in the 2nd year of the Zingo-Keiun era (768) and its festival was held on the first "day of the monkey" (saru no hi) in February and November (old lunar calendar). In the Meiji period, this day has been declared to be on March 13.
An imperial messanger makes offerings to the deity and many Shinto ceremonies are held on this day.

One of the three great festivals by order of the Imperial court (san chokusai 三勅祭) of Japan.

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"Throwing deer bisquits"
shika senbei tobashi 鹿せんべい飛ばし
March 21
On the open spaces of Wakakusa Yama 若草山

Usually the deer get small bisquits from the tourists, but on this day large ones with a diameter of 25 cm are made for throwing and fighting about the longest flight of a bisquit. Sometimes they throw it for more than 50 meters. The winner gets a pair of the cut-off horns of a Kasuga deer.

CLICK for more photos


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Photo: Mainichi Shinbun October 2010

shika no tsunokiri 鹿の角切 (しかのつのきり)
cutting the horns of deer

deer-horn cutting ceremony

tsunokiri 角伐(つのきり)cutting the horns
shikayose 鹿寄せ(しかよせ)herding the deer together
shikatsuri 鹿釣り(しかつり)"fishing for deer"

kigo for late autumn

In October, the divine deer are all gathered in one place and the horns are cut. This will prevent the animals from hurting each other and hurting the many visitors in Nara. The deer are rounded up and the first cut is made by a shinto priest of the shrine. This ceremony started in the Edo period and is performed to this day by a group of about 25 professionals.



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Kasuga Wakamiya Shrine Festival
Kasuga Wakamiya On Matsuri

春日若宮御祭 (かすがわかみやおんまつり)
kigo for mid-winter
..... "THE Festival" on matsuri 御祭(おんまつり)
december 15 - 18

This festival is handed down since the 12th century. It started during an epidemic, when the government had rites performed at the "Young Shrine" Wakamiya, to pray for improvement and also for a good harvest.
The biggest event is now held on December 17, with a long procession of people dressed in period robes of the past, from the 9th to the 19th Century.

Traditional music and dance are also performed during these festival days.


CLICK for more photos
Folding Screen depicting the On Matsuri

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Kasuga no o-taue matsuri
春日御田植祭 (かすがのおたうえまつり)
rice planting ritual at Kasuga shrine

kigo for the New Year
sometimes placed in mid-spring

On March 15.
A ritual to pray for a good harvest.
At the three shrines Ringo no niwa 林檎の庭, Enomoto Jinja 榎本神社 and Wakamiya shrine 若宮社 men perform ritual planting dances and women plant pine needles (representing rice plants) as an offering to the deities.

The colorful dances and lively songs are a joy.


SAIJIKI – NEW YEAR OBSERVANCES

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Horse-riding and arrow shooting contest
yabusame sadame 流鏑馬定(やぶさめさだめ)
July 1


Sacred Rope Ritual, nawamune sai
縄棟祭(なわむねさい)
October 1


Young Monks getting a rank
Bachoo no chigo no okurai uke
馬長児僧位僧官授与式(ばちょうのちごのおくらいうけ)
Beginning of December

Japanese: Rituals at Kasuga Wakamiya


Wakamiya, chigo or dooji indicates a divine boy (in case of Kasuga an incarnation of Monju Bosatsu), Bodhisattva of wisdom.


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Worldwide use


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Things found on the way



春日のの鹿も立ちそう花御堂
Kasuga no no shika mo tachisoo hana midoo

Kasuga Field's deer
also attend, I see...
blossom-filled temple

Issa
Tr. David Lanoue
Kasuga Shrine and Hana Mido


Kasuga Shrine Mandala
CLICK for more photos

On this scroll, a sacred tree (sakaki, Cleyera japonica) stands on the back of the white deer, which is the messenger of the Deity of Kasuga.
Kasuga shrine has four main deities and the one of Wakamiya (the New Shrine) is seen as Buddhas standing on the branches. There are also wisteria blossoms (fuji), the symbol of the shrine and the Fujiwara family.
The top part of the mandala shows Mount Mikasa in front of the Kasuga hills.



Three haiku by Kobayashi ISSA about the deer

春日野の鹿にかがるる袷かな
kasugano no shika ni kagaruru awase kana

Kasuga Field's deer
sniff it...
my summer kimono



春日野や駄菓子に交る鹿の尿
kasugano ya dagashi ni majiru shika no kuso

Kasuga Field--
penny candy mingles

with deer poop



春日野や神もゆるしの鹿の恋
kasugano ya kami mo yurushi no shika no koi

Kasuga Field--
with the god's permission
deer make love


Tr. David Lanoue


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Kasuga jinja no ema 春日神社の絵馬
votiv tablets


They come in all sizes and with all kinds of paintings.
There is a special hall to exhibit them all.

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goshiki jika 五色鹿 deer in five colors

The deer go back to the legend of the deity Takemikazuchi no mikoto 武甕槌神
The "Great God of Kashima" rode on a white deer from Kashima all the way to the Kasuga shrine in Nara as a divine messenger, and the deer became the symbol of Nara.
The Kasuga Deer Mandala tells the story.

These deer are only about 2 cm high, made with bamboo legs. They come in five colors and have white dots on their body.

. Folk Toys from Nara .


. Kashima Shrine 鹿島神宮 Kashima Jingu .


. Goshiki Daruma and Color Symbols .




. hakuroku 白鹿 white deer mikuji .

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Saiin Kasuga Jinja 西院春日神社
Sai-In Kasuga Shrine in Kyoto

京都市右京区西院春日町61 - 61 Saiin Kasuga-cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyoto
Founded in 833.
It holds all the deities of the Kasuga Shrine in Nara, just closer to Kyoto.

In the compound is a stone that heals all kind of illness


hoosoo ishi 疱瘡石 "smallpox stone"

In the beginning of the Heian period, the wife of Junna Tenno 淳和天皇 (786 - 840), 崇子内親王 Takako Naishinnoo, suffered from smallpox and made a vow to this stone.
So the stone took on the smallpox and the lady was cured. Now people come to pray for good health.

In October there is also a festival with mikoshi palanquins, praying for good health and a good harvest.

- Homepage of the shrine
- source : kasuga.or.jp



Look at more amulets from the shrine
- source : kasuga.or.jp/kitou


. byooma taisan 病魔退散 warding off disease .
. Health Amulets 健康御守 kenkoo omamori .


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HAIKU


申祭人より多き鹿の群  
saru matsuri hito yori ooki shika no mure

Beim Fest des Affen
sind die Herden vom Hirsch
mehr als die vom Menschen.


Kinoshita Seirin 木下星林(1918~)
Tr. Namura Kouta


Kasuga Monkey Festival -
there are more throngs of deer
than throngs of people

Tr. Gabi Greve



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Aoni Yoshi 青丹よし Aoniyoshi
"the green and cinnabar is good"


This is an old makurakotoba for the old capital of Nara. The red pillars and green window bars of the shrine are auspicious colors to keep evil out of the city.

Many temples and shrines were built whith these colors, so a walk in Nara was yoshi, was pleasing and this expression became synonymous with NARA (Heijokyo 平城京).


There is also a famous sweet from Manshodo 萬勝堂 of this name.
It is made of wasanbon sugar.

CLICK for original link manshoudou.com
http://www.manshoudou.com/teiban.html


. WASHOKU
Wasanbon sugar 和三盆



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In 768, when the shrine Kasuga Taisha was built, the priests of the shrine dress in hunters gear (kariginu 狩衣 ) and pound rice for mochi, which are fried in oil. They are also written 伏兎.

. WASHOKU
hiuchi yaki 火打焼 a kind of mochi ricecake
 



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Related words

***** Light offerings afloat (tooroo nagashi)

***** Stone Lantern (ishidooroo) Japan

***** . Kinkazan : cutting antlers of deer  

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The Dragon God of Kasuga Shrine 春日竜神 Kasuga Ryujin
Tsukioka Kōgyo 岡耕漁 (Sakamaki Kōgyo) (1869-1927)

- quote -
Kasuga Ryūjin (春日龍神), or "The Kasuga Dragon God,"
is a Japanese Noh play often attributed to Komparu Zenchiku, son-in-law of Zeami Motokiyo. The play features the historical figure Myōe Shōnin (1173 – 1232), abbot of the Buddhist temple Kōzan-ji, and famous for his detailed dream diary. Myōe sought for many years to visit China and India, and to witness the places where the historical Buddha preached; in episodes recorded in his dream diary and other sources, Myōe is said to have been visited, both in dreams and via oracles, by the Dragon God of Kasuga Shrine, who persuaded him to remain in Japan. The play is inspired by and based upon these sources, and relates one such meeting of Myōe with the Dragon God.
----- Plot
The play opens with Myōe and his companions traveling to Kasuga Shrine to say formal farewells to the kami of the shrine, before they leave for their journey to China and India. There, they meet a priest, an old man, who welcomes them into the shrine grounds, saying that Myōe is favored by the kami of the shrine like a first-born son, and that of course he should be most welcome. Learning of Myōe's intentions to journey abroad, however, he argues that the kami shouldn't like to see him go, as his presence at the shrine is so treasured.

The priest goes on to explain that, were the Buddha still living, one would do well to hear him preach in person. But, he says, the ages have turned, and the sacred places of India and China are now represented in Japan. He equates important Buddhist sites such as Vulture Peak to sites in Japan, such as Mount Mikasa, and encourages Myōe to visit these sacred sites instead. He offers that if Myōe will desist with his plan, he will reveal to the monk, upon Mount Mikasa, the five regions of India, the Buddha's birth, the Buddha's enlightenment, his preaching, and his passing.

Convinced, Myōe gives up his intentions to travel to the continent, and asks the old man his name. The priest identifies himself as Tokifū Hideyuki, a name drawn from those of the founders of the Kasuga Shrine, Nakatomi no Tokifū and Nakatomi no Hideyuki, at which he vanishes.

Between the two acts of the play, a kyōgen actor portraying a minor kami in the service of the shrine comes forth and retells the story of the first act.

In the second act, the Dragon God of Kasuga (the kasuga ryūjin of the play's title) appears, and dances, while speaking to Myōe, and confirming that he has in fact given up his intentions to journey to the continent.
- source : wikipedia -

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Kasuga Myoojin 春日明神 Kasuga Myojin
Kasuga Daimyoojin, Kasuga Daimyôjin 春日大明神 Kasuga Daimyojin

comprizes the five kami of Kasuga related to the temple Kofuku-Ji.

Based on the honji suijaku doctrine, separate Buddhist avatars (honjibutsu) were designated for Kasuga shrine's Shisho Myōjin, "Four Bright Kami," and Kasuga daimyōjin the collective name for the "Four Bright Kami" and the uber-kami that those four comprise was considered a Shinto manifestation of the Buddhist Boddhisattva Jihimangyō Bosatsu.
- quote - Sato Masato, Kokugakuin 2007 -


. Japanese Legends - 伝説 民話 昔話 – ABC-List .

南都の僧侶・障圓という人は学問をよくする人だったが魔道に落ちた。僧はある女性に憑いて、「春日大明神を奉ずる人は春日野の下にある地獄に堕ちる」ことなどを語った。


.......................................................................... Kumamoto 熊本県
玉東町 Gyokuto

The origin of Konoha Saru. 木葉猿の由来。
孝徳天皇のころ、都の落人が虎の葉の里に詫住まいしていた。元正天皇の時代、養老7年正月7日に衣冠正しい老翁が枕元に立ち、汝罪なくして都を出て、この山里に詫住まいしているので、宇多郡深草の社に鎮まる春日大明神を遷し奉るべしといった。その後ある日旅人がやってきて大和の国春日の神勅を持ってきた。そのため虎の葉の里に春日大社を遷した。10月9日を生日の足日と定めて雨山の赤土をかきとって海山の神つ物を捧げてその楽を奏し、その平盆の余った土を投げると、猿の形を現し、忽然として飛び去った。人々が奇異な思いをしていると、鼻高く面赤く身の丈1丈あまりなのが現れ、汝等雨山の土でましらを作れば、真榊の真幸といって消え去った。


.......................................................................... Kyoto 京都府

円覚上人 圓智上人 Saint Enchi
Saint Enchi's parents did not have any children, so they prayed to Kasuga Myojin. In a dream he let them know that soon they would have child with a special curse.
Eventually a baby boy was born and the husband made offerings to the Deity.
Just then lightning struck the house and almost the whole family died. The mother became blind and eventually left the child in the wilderness of the pilgrims road to Kasuga Shrine.

. 円覚上人 圓智上人 Saint Enchi (active in Tsugaru around 550) .


.......................................................................... Nara 奈良県
帯解町 Obitake

ryuu 竜 Ryu, Dragon
In the village pond lived a Dragon who ate peopoe, so they tried to drive it away. They lit a fire at the dam of the pond and tried to scare it, but the Dragon did not appear. A Samurai, who walked past, shot an arrow in the pond. The Dragon grabbed the Samurai and flew with him up to heaven. Eventually it begun 雷光 to thunder ad flashes of lightning appeared.
Blood-red raindrops fell into the pond. Eventually the body of the dragon dropped into the pond, all torn with wounds.
The villagers collected the Dragon bones from the pond and made a statue of a Dragon.
The Samurai never appeared again. They say it was an incarnation of
春日明神 the Deity Kasuga Myojin.

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誓多林町 Setarincho

Along the 新笠置街道 New Kasagi Road there are two large footprints in a stone wall.
They say they are the footprints from the White Deer which Kasuga Myojin rode when he came from Kashima.

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Yonaki Jizo 夜泣地蔵 Jizo crying at night

春日神社本殿の厨子から毎夜子供の泣声がするので開けてみると、春日大明神とあがめていたのは地蔵菩薩だった。地蔵菩薩が新薬師寺に参りたいというので遷座した。


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- reference : Nichibun Yokai Database -

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